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Identification de voies de résistance aux inhibiteurs de tyrosine kinase dans la leucémie myéloïde chronique par criblage CRISPR-Cas9.

Abstract : The characterization of malignant tumour growth and the understanding of resistance mechanisms to treatment in cancer is of utmost importance for the discovery of novel “druggable” targets. Efficient genetic screening, now even more possible with the convergence of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics, is an important tool for deciphering novel cellular processes, such as resistance to treatment in cancer. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterised by the t(9;22) genetic abnormality, which encodes the driver of CML, the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein. Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, specifically eliminates CML cells by targeting and blocking the kinase activity of this protein, yet, as for all targeted therapies in cancer, resistance to treatment exists. In order to discover alternative BCR-ABL1 independent mechanisms of imatinib resistance, we utilized the genome-scale CRISPR knock-out library GeCKO v2 to screen for imatinib sensitising genes in vitro on K562 cells. We revealed genes that seem essential for imatinib induced cell death, such as pro-apoptotic genes (BIM, BAX) or MAPK inhibitor SPRED2. Specifically re-establishing apoptotic capabilities in BIM knock-out (KO) cells with BH3-mimetics, or inhibiting MAP-kinase signalling in SPRED2 KO cells with MEK inhibitors restores sensitivity to imatinib, overcoming resistance phenotypes. In this work, we discovered previously identified pathways (apoptosis, MAP-kinase signalling) and novel pathways that modulate response to imatinib in CML cell lines, such as the implication of the Mediator complex, mRNA processing and protein ubiquitinylation. Targeting these specific genetic lesions with combinational therapy can overcome resistance phenotypes and paves the road for the use of precision oncology.
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Matthieu Lewis. Identification de voies de résistance aux inhibiteurs de tyrosine kinase dans la leucémie myéloïde chronique par criblage CRISPR-Cas9.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0054⟩. ⟨tel-02426223⟩

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