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Recherche de marqueurs associés à la production de méthane entérique chez la vache laitière par des approches métabolomiques multiplateformes

Abstract : Ruminants produce significant amount of enteric methane, which is a major contributor of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural origin. This production also results in a loss of 6 to 8% of the energy present in the diet. The reduction of enteric methane emissions from ruminants is an active area of research that requires the use of expensive, constraining measurement methods such as respiratory chambers or the use of a tracer gas that are difficult to use outside experimental farms. Therefore, there is a need of alternative, non-invasive measurement methods that can be used on large number of animals. In this work, we used an open metabolomic approach for identifying potential metabolic biomarkers associated with the production of methane in dairy cows. These discriminant metabolites, once validated, may be used for monitoring methane emissions under field conditions. To maximize the chance of finding such biomarkers, we used a multiplatform metabolomics approach (nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry) to better cover the metabolome and analyzed four biological matrices, namely milk, plasma, ruminal fluid and urine. We carried out a study involving 25 primiparous Holstein dairy cows that were divided into two groups fed a diet with or without a specific anti-methanogenic compound. We measured 22.7% reduction of methane emissions in the Treated group compared to the Control group. We identified 27 discriminant metabolites in plasma and 16 discriminant metabolites in milk. Metabolic network analysis highlighted pathways involved in energy and amino acids metabolism suggesting a general effect on the host animal induced by a reduction in methanogenesis.
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Bénédict Yanibada. Recherche de marqueurs associés à la production de méthane entérique chez la vache laitière par des approches métabolomiques multiplateformes. Agronomie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC041⟩. ⟨tel-02426211⟩

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