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Synthesis of electroactive macrocycles and rotaxanes

Abstract : Development of interlocked molecular ring-on-thread architectures (rotaxanes) represents a central current topic in supramolecular chemistry. This thesis considers the multi-step synthesis of rotaxane subcomponents, notably electroactive macrocyclic components, and their assembly into interlocked molecular structures. Novel hydrogen-bonding 31- and 35-member rings comprising a bis(2,6-diamidopyridine) receptor motif and an electroactive unit, namely ferrocene or triphenylamine, were synthesized. These macrocycles were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Host-guest interactions with a complementary 5,5’-diethylbarbituric acid (Barbital) as model guest were also studied by electronic absorption and 1H-NMR spectroscopic titrations. Binding affinities were correlated to molecular structure. Approaches to form 2rotaxanes, notably by employing an active metal template reaction, where the metal ion plays the dual role of template and catalyst, are described. In particular, the copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen as well as Glaser coupling reactions were employed with a variety of bulky stopper groups. In a second complementary “clipping”-type approach to rotaxane formation, the electroactive ring was directly formed encircling the templating thread component. This methodology yielded two further novel [2]rotaxanes via a template-assisted five-component clipping reaction, one rotaxane integrating two ferrocene units while the other comprised two triphenylamine-like units. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the interlocked nature of the assemblies.
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Luca Pisciottani. Synthesis of electroactive macrocycles and rotaxanes. Organic chemistry. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0270⟩. ⟨tel-02426196⟩

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