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Sensibilité de l’espèce bioturbatrice Upogebia cf. pusilla dans un environnement littoral soumis à différents stress : infestations parasitaires et contamination métallique

Abstract : Bioturbation is a typical example of ecosystem engineering. Bioturbating species are mainly epi- or endobenthic organisms, which profoundly affect the physical structure and biogeochemical properties of sediments. In marine soft-bottom environments, thalassinidean mud shrimp are considered as one of the most prominent bioturbating organisms. Among these species is the mud shrimp Upogebia cf. pusilla, which is recognized as an important sediment reworker, also significantly contributing to the bioirrigation of sediments. In fine, this species greatly modulates organic matter mineralization and biogeochemical fluxes at the sediment-water interface. The influence of U. cf. pusilla in ecosystem functioning depends on the intensity of its bioturbation and thus on its fitness. Several factors can affect the physiological status of organisms, potentially resulting in behavioural changes and causing modifications of their activities. Amongst potential stressors, we evaluated the influence of parasitism and trace metal contamination on the mud shrimp U. cf. pusilla in Arcachon Bay, France. Field surveys and laboratory experiments were undertaken in order to evaluate (1) the parasite infestation levels in the mud shrimp at the local scale, (2) the metal contamination background and potential relationship between the metal accumulation and the parasitic status of organisms in the field and (3) estimate the distinct and interactive impacts of parasitism and metal contamination on two scales of organisation, by targeting a molecular (gene expression) and a behavioural (sediment reworking) endpoint.A large spatial and temporal survey conducted in Arcachon Bay showed that at least two parasites species occur in mud shrimp: a bopyrid isopod (Gyge branchialis), living in one of the gill chambers of its host, and a trematode parasite (Maritrema sp.), infecting the whole body of mud shrimp. These two parasite species are negatively associated within their host, in which the bopyrid likely interferes with trematodes establishment. Additionally, a one year seasonal sampling demonstrated that mud shrimp displayed very low levels of metals in Arcachon Bay. The bopyrid parasite could interfere with the process of metal accumulation in mud shrimp, while such correlation was not found for the trematode parasite. Finally, complementary laboratory experiments highlighted that, at the molecular level, the bopyrid parasite did not affect the expression of the genes targeted in this study in mud shrimp. Similarly, at the behavioural level, and conversely to a previous study, the effects of the bopyrid parasite were minor, i.e. only associated to small modifications of the bioturbation activity of its host. Indeed, the intensity of the sediment reworking of mud shrimp was slightly reduced when organisms were infested with this parasite. Regarding trace metal contamination, we noticed that mud shrimp largely accumulated cadmium. This accumulation was associated to an important modulation of gene expression, especially of genes encoding proteins involved in detoxification processes, highlighting, at this organisation level, the capability of mud shrimp to deal with the deleterious effect of cadmium. At the behavioural scale, cadmium contamination positively affected the sediment reworking activity of mud shrimp. Finally, double-stress experiments evidenced an antagonistic effect of both stressors on the two targeted endpoints. This study highlights the complexity of the interactions between multiple stressors and that the response of organisms cannot be predicted from “single-stress” experiments. [...]
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Annabelle Dairain. Sensibilité de l’espèce bioturbatrice Upogebia cf. pusilla dans un environnement littoral soumis à différents stress : infestations parasitaires et contamination métallique. Biologie animale. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0331⟩. ⟨tel-02426190⟩



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