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Utilisation des réseaux de capteurs Géocubes pour la mesure de déformation des volcans en temps réel par GNSS

Abstract : The Geocube system is a network of wireless GPS sensors designed and developed by the Laboratory of Opto-Electronics, Metrology and Instrumentation (LOEMI) of the National Institute of Geographical and Forest Information (IGN) and maintained by the same laboratory and Ophelia-Sensors, the company responsible for its industrialization. Its purpose is to measure ground deformations with millimetre accuracy. This sensor network has the particularity of being very low in energy consumption, low cost, easy to install and easy to use. It is suited for use in harsh environments, such as volcanoes. This system has already been successfully tested in a previous works on the Argentière glacier and a Super-Sauze landslide in France. The first part of this thesis deals with the optimization of the Geocube system for larger networks, horizontally and vertically, in order to use it in a volcanic context. First, a new strategy to estimate the tropospheric bias has been implemented into the Kalman filter (the heart of the Geocube processing software) in real time and in post-processing. This improvement is then validated using data from some national and international permanent GNSS networks. The second part consists in studying the contribution of a dense Geocubes network to the study of volcanism through an experiment conducted on the southeastern flank of Etna, where five Geocubes were deployed between July, 12th 2016 and July, 10th 2017. The results obtained from this experiment are discussed and analysed. Finally, the results obtained with Geocubes are validated by applying a PSI (Persistent Scatterer InSAR) technique on RADAR interferograms calculated from Sentinel-1A/B satellite data covering the period of deployment of the Geocubes on Etna. These two methods (GPS and RADAR) turned out to be complementary since RADAR provides the spatial density of measurements and the Geocube system provides accuracy and temporal continuity.
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Mohamed Amjad Lasri. Utilisation des réseaux de capteurs Géocubes pour la mesure de déformation des volcans en temps réel par GNSS. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEE040⟩. ⟨tel-02426022⟩

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