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Aspects évolutifs et environnementaux de la plasticité phénotypique chez deux Moronidés, le bar Européen (Dicentrarchus labrax) et le bar rayé (Morone saxatilis)

Abstract : One of the major questions in the current ecological debate about global change is whether phenotypic plasticity will enable species to respond to the rapid pace of ongoing environmental change. The general objective of this thesis was to study the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) depletion on the plasticity of two species, the European bar (Dicentrarchus labrax) and the striped bass (Moronesaxatilis). In juvenile European bass, the combined effect of an increase in temperature and of a reduction in availability of n-3 nutritional PUFA resulted in marked modifications of the profile in neutral muscular fatty acids and a smaller liver mass.At high temperature, growth was increased with the two diets which suggests an absence of nutritional deficiency.Conversely, diet did not affect the hepatic transcriptional factors involved in regulation of FA bioconversion. Juveniles fed the low AGLPI n-3 diet had a higher critical swimming speed in presence of hypoxic or hypoosmotic constraints. In striped bass juveniles, AGLPI n-3nutritional availability brought modifications of lipid profile both in muscle (neutral fraction) and in liver. Diet with low AGLPI n-3 was associated with a larger cardiac mass, but had no effect on growth in cold water. A higher stress level was observed in FW which was associated to higher mortality.These results contribute to a better understanding of the impact of global changes on marine organisms and pave the way for new research perspectives.
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Clémence Gourtay. Aspects évolutifs et environnementaux de la plasticité phénotypique chez deux Moronidés, le bar Européen (Dicentrarchus labrax) et le bar rayé (Morone saxatilis). Biologie animale. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest; Université du Québec à Rimouski, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BRES0099⟩. ⟨tel-02426020⟩

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