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Développement d’un microdispositif magnétique pour le contrôle et la détection de complexes immunologiques à base de nanoparticules magnétiques

Abstract : RésuméThe objective of this thesis is the fabrication of a magnetic microdevice for the detection and manipulation of biological elements based on magnetic nanoparticles under microfluidic conditions. It aims to integrate basic functions of control and magnetic detection, to achieve specific, stable, fast and reproducible measurements. Indeed, the immunoassay technique coupled to magnetic nanoparticles, well known in the literature, requires a control of the displacement of magnetic nanoparticles to effectively functionalize them and create a biological complex to encapsulate a target molecule (biomarker). In our case, a model molecule for the field of biodefense was used: ovalbumin. To control the magnetic field which is necessary for the capture of magnetic complexes, we opted for the use of microcoils integrated in the fluidic devices and compared this original technique with other more conventional ones. To detect a biological complex, fluorescence is widely used in biology, but this technique does not allow a complete integration for an autonomous device. In this context, we propose the detection of complexes based on magnetic nanoparticles by observing the variation of the inductance of a magnetic microcircuit closing a microfluidic chamber containing these immunological complexes. The design of the control microcoils by simulation made it possible to determine the parameters allowing to obtain the most adapted magnetic field to the control of the biological complexes. In the case of microcoils used for detection, micrometric magnetic branches were inserted around the microcoils to create an even more sensitive magnetic sensing circuit. The realization of these devices involved the integration of materials and structures of highly heterogeneous nature, and their assembly has required to solve many technological locks. The challenge was to determine all the successive and necessary steps for a reliable and reproducible microfabrication process. To show the interest of magnetic nanoparticle capture devices, immunoassays were first performed in microtubes to compare with those made in a fluid circuit using external magnet and integrated microcoils. In the latter case, considerable optimization has been validated in terms of reduction of incubation time, reproducibility of measurements and detection limits equivalent to the state of the art for ovalbumin. For the magnetic detection device, first experiments of electrical characterization as well as concentration studies of magnetic nanoparticles were carried out and compared to the results obtained by simulation. For the proof of concept, a demonstrator of detection of magnetic complexes was also finalized validating the possibility of integration of the magnetic microcircuit in a fluidic device. It has also validated obtaining a remarkable range of sensitivity correlated with the presence of magnetic complexes. Its characteristics were compared to those obtained by the simulations and discussed taking into account all the critical steps of the microfabrication process.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02426019, version 1

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Olivier Lefebvre. Développement d’un microdispositif magnétique pour le contrôle et la détection de complexes immunologiques à base de nanoparticules magnétiques. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS537⟩. ⟨tel-02426019⟩

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