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Désordres métaboliques et conséquences multigénérationnelles liés à l’exposition aux perturbateurs endocriniens chez un modèle d’amphibien : (Xenopus tropicalis)

Abstract : In wetlands, dramatic decline in amphibian populations have been described worldwide since the 80s. Despite numerous studies suggesting that amphibians are highly sensitive to cumulative anthropogenic stresses, the role played by endocrine disruptors in the decline of amphibian populations remains unclear. Among the endocrine disruptors contaminating wetlands, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and triclosan (TCS) are recurrently found. In this work, we studied the physiological response of Xenopus tropicalis exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of BaP and TCS during a short-term (24 hours) and long-term (from tadpole to mature adult) period. By combining a high throughput transcriptomic approach and a characterization of cellular and physiological modifications, we showed that BaP, TCS and their mixture disrupt overall liver physiology highlighted by insulin resistance-like and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-like phenotypes together with hepatotoxicity due to the impairment of lipid metabolism. Additionally to direct metabolic impact observed on exposed individuals, the studied endocrine disruptors affected their fitness and their progeny development. Altogether, our observations bring new insights into the role plays by chronic contamination of wetlands on amphibian population decline.
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Christophe Regnault. Désordres métaboliques et conséquences multigénérationnelles liés à l’exposition aux perturbateurs endocriniens chez un modèle d’amphibien : (Xenopus tropicalis). Ecotoxicologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS030⟩. ⟨tel-02426008⟩

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