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Construction sociale de la ressource et renégociation des régulations. Analyse du secteur minier péruvien, fin du XXe siècle - début du XXIe siècle

Abstract : Analysis of the dynamics of the mining sector in Peru between the end of the twentieth century and the start of the twenty-first allows an understanding of economic globalisation as a resolutely spatial phenomenon in which territories and identities are reinvented around resources at once local and global. In this thesis, we show how the new rules of the game of mining and property, and environmental governance, illustrate the necessarily political construction of Peru’s territory and resources by the central State around a national project of market-oriented exploitation of mining deposits as a source of economic wealth. This reorganisation of the national productive structure by capital, often foreign, sheds light on the impact of economic actors on the future of the territories. An increase of the spatial imprint of the mining sector and the revenue it generates amounts to a territorial and economic transplant of mining exploitation on a national scale. This increase, however, is felt unequally in local territories. The multiplication of mining conflicts at the start of the twenty-first century recalls how natural resources and the regulations codifying the society-nature relationship are the often unstable result of power relations between actors of unequal weight and with potentially antagonistic goals. We analyze these conflicts questionning the role and place of local actors and territories in development policies, as a weapon of (re)negotiation of the rules of the game wielded by the « have nots ». Varying in intensity, negotiations can be considered micro when the stakes are relatively limited and the actors only hope to achieve a greater share of the wealth. By contrast, conflicts may constitute a weapon of mass negotiation when actors refuse the commodification of nature and attempt a profound transformation of the rules of the game, as is illustrated by the Conga mining conflict in Cajamarca.
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Vincent Bos. Construction sociale de la ressource et renégociation des régulations. Analyse du secteur minier péruvien, fin du XXe siècle - début du XXIe siècle. Géographie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCA113⟩. ⟨tel-02422392⟩

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