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Synthèse par chimie douce et étude structurale de nanocristaux d'oxydes métalliques

Abstract : The aim of this work was to synthesize small size (~1-3 nm) metal oxide nanocrystals namely titanium dioxide (TiO2), tin dioxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), and to study their structure. Syntheses were conducted via non-aqueous or even strictly non-hydrolytic sol-gel methods under kinetic control. The structural characterization was mainly carried out by X-Ray diffraction methods, transmission electronic microscopy and the study of pair distribution functions, obtained by X Ray total scattering, coupled with atomic scale modelling methods. In the case of TiO2, anatase nanocrystals were obtained with sizes ranging between 4 nm and 8 nm. The molar ratio of the oxygen donor with respect to titanium was shown to be an important parameter to control the nanoparticle size. In peculiar conditions we have been able to isolate an intermediate phase characterized by very small sized and poorly crystallized nanoparticles which the structure can be assimilated to a disordered brookite structure. Concerning SnO2, rutile-type nanocrystals were synthesized with sizes ranging between 2 nm and 4 nm. The use of an ether as oxygen donor led to the simultaneous formation of an organic polymeric phase and of primary nanoparticles characterized by an intermediate structure close but still different from the rutile-type structure. Moreover, the use of benzyl-type solvents in the presence of tin tetrachloride led to the formation of water in the system. Lastly, for ZnO, we have shown that using an organic base to induce the formation of the metal oxide network in a methanolic solution of zinc acetate in the presence of a strong complexing agent of the zinc allowed us to obtain wurtzite nanocrystals of ultrasmall sizes around 1 nm. Even for the smallest sizes, the nanoparticles exhibit a structure very close to that of wurtzite with an increasing disorder of the cationic network.
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Alex Lemarchand. Synthèse par chimie douce et étude structurale de nanocristaux d'oxydes métalliques. Matériaux. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0110⟩. ⟨tel-02422225⟩

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