Mise au point d’un laboratoire sur puce pour la détection de cellules eucaryotes par des capteurs à magnétorésistance géante

Abstract : The « in vitro » tests are requested for the establishment of nearly 70% of diagnoses and their development for on-site detection therefore appears to be a major public health issue. In this context, the ASSURED criterion (« Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, User-friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment-free and Deliverable to end-users ») has been defined by the World Health Organization to encourage researchers to develop diagnostic tools called « Point of Care » that can be widely used.With the rise of microfluidics, the range of possible devices has broadened and integrated biosensors have been developed, transforming the biological signal from a biomarker recognition by a biological probe into an optical, electrochemical, mechanical or magnetic signal. As biological environments are largely non-magnetic, magnetic sensors are not affected by the use of complex biological matrices as are optical or electrochemical measurements. In addition, these sensors are easy to produce and can be integrated into microfluidic chips. The objectives of this thesis are to design a diagnostic tool in vitro based on giant magnetoresistance sensors and to test its performance. Its development was carried out using a murine myeloma cell line. The cells are specifically labeled by magnetic particles functionalized by antibodies directed against one of their antigens and flown in the microfluidic channel above the sensors. This dynamic detection method allows magnetic objects to be counted one by one. The challenge is to distinguish the signals coming from the labeled cells from those of the beads remaining in solution. In order to address this problem, two labs on chips are developed in this thesis. In a first device, an inner layer of a few micrometers separates the sensors from the channel which allows to suppress the signals of the isolated beads. The second device has sensors both above and below the microfluidic channel and can measure the number of beads corresponding to each doubly detected object which can thus be identified (aggregates or biological objects).
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Manon Giraud. Mise au point d’un laboratoire sur puce pour la détection de cellules eucaryotes par des capteurs à magnétorésistance géante. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS344⟩. ⟨tel-02420798⟩

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