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Percevoir la parole quand elle est produite différemment : étude des mécanismes de familiarisation multimodale/multisensorielle entre locuteurs tout-venants et locuteurs présentant un trouble de l'articulation

Abstract : Speech is the most widely used means of communication by humans. It allows people to express their needs, exchange thoughts with others and contributes to the construction of social identity. It is also a complex communication channel involving elaborate motor control in production and the ability to analyze sound sequences produced by a wide variety of speakers in perception. This complexity results in speech being often the most altered or difficult to acquire mode of communication for people whose sensorimotor systems are impaired. This is particularly the case for people with trisomy 21 (T21), a genetic syndrome inducing complex orofacial motor difficulties and alterations in the auditory and somatosensory spheres. While speaking is possible for most of these people, their intelligibility is always affected. Improving their oral communication is a clinical and social issue. The study of speech production by people with T21 and its perception by typical listeners is also of theoretical interest, particularly with regard to the fundamental issues of multimodal perception of speech and the involvement of the auditor's motor system in this perception.In this thesis, we reposition the intelligibility disorder of people with T21 in a framework that conceives speech as a cooperative act between speaker and listener. In contrast to the traditional focus on the speaker in applied research, we are interested in the listener's means to better perceive speech, based on two observations: (1) T21 speech is not very intelligible auditorily; (2) its intelligibility is better for familiar than unfamiliar interlocutors. These observations are linked to two important research results on speech perception. First, in a situation of face-to-face communication, in addition to auditory information, the listener also uses the visual information produced by the speaker. In particular, the latter makes it possible to better perceive speech when auditory information is altered. Secondly, familiarization with a specific type of speech leads to a better perception of it. This effect is increased by the imitation of the speech perceived, which would further activate the listener’s internal motor representations.This connection between the specific difficulties of people with T21 and research on speech perception leads to the following questions. Given the anatomical orofacial specificities of the speaker with T21 impacting his articulatory motor gestures, does the typical listener benefit from the presence of visual information? Can the involvement of the motor system in familiarizing oneself with this specific speech help to better perceive it? To answer these questions, we conducted two experimental studies. In the first one, we show that seeing the face of the speaker with T21 improves the intelligibility of his consonants in a way comparable to typical speakers, using a classical paradigm of audio-visual perception of speech in noise. Visual information therefore seems to be relatively preserved despite anatomical and physiological specificities. In a second study, we adapt a familiarization paradigm with and without imitation to assess whether imitation during the auditory perception of words produced by a speaker with T21 can help improve their perception. Our results suggest that this is the case. This work opens up clinical and theoretical perspectives: the study of the perception of speech produced by people with atypical vocal tract and control mechanisms makes it possible to evaluate the generality of the perception mechanisms put forward with typical speakers and to delimit their contours.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 19, 2019 - 2:45:07 PM
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Alexandre Hennequin. Percevoir la parole quand elle est produite différemment : étude des mécanismes de familiarisation multimodale/multisensorielle entre locuteurs tout-venants et locuteurs présentant un trouble de l'articulation. Linguistique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAS013⟩. ⟨tel-02419441⟩

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