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Production des consonnes plosives du français : du contrôle des bruits de plosion

Abstract : Stop consonants (/p/, /b/, etc) are of particular interest for the understanding of speech motor control. Indeed, the production of these stop consonant requires the coordination of the 3 production levels: breathing, vocal folds vibration and articulation.The main goal of my thesis is to study how respiratory, laryngeal and articulatory gestures coordinate to control the variation of acoustic features of stop consonants, especially of their burts (intensity, duration, spectrum), which are crucial for stop consonant intelligibility. An important part of my thesis work also focuses on the muscular control of lip gestures in the production of bilabial stops. These goals needed a preliminary methodological work to compare, develop and implement different techniques, in order to measure and estimate articulatory efforts of speech production, physiologically and mechanically (lip movement kinematics, force sensors, orofacial electromyography). This methodological exploration has given rise to theacquisition of a large database (acoustic and physiological data) of French stop consonant productions, for twenty healthy speakers, including 2 phonation modes (modal and whispered), 2 speech rates (normal and fast) and several levels of articulatory effort.The analysis of this database has confirmed relationships already established inconversational speech between burst intensity and the maximum of intra-oral pressure (or opening velocity of lips for labial stops), and between spectral features of the burst and articulatory parameters of tongue movements for alveolar and velar stops. New other relationships have been observed in conversational : 1- the burst acoustic intensity increase when the lips compression and opening velocity increase (for labial stop consonants) ; 2-the burst acoustic intensity increase when the elevation tangential velocity of the tongue increase (for palatal stop consonants) ; 3- the lips compression, lips opening and closing velocities significantly increase when the activities of the OOS (Superior Orbicularis Oris) and DLI (Depressor of the Inferior Lip) muscles increase (during the movement phasis where muscles are agonists). These relationships depend on phonation quality (in whispered speech the accent is made on using kinematic parameters at the cost of aerodynamic, articulatory and temporal ones) and speech rate (most of physiological and articulatory parameters lost efficacies for acoustic control when speech rate increase).
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 19, 2019 - 10:56:08 AM
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Thibault Cattelain. Production des consonnes plosives du français : du contrôle des bruits de plosion. Linguistique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAS011⟩. ⟨tel-02418881⟩



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