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Micro-structured membrane as a 3D biodegradable scaffold : development, characterization and cell-matrix interaction

Abstract : Over the last decades, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are unfolding many promising applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field by providing suitable microenvironment for the incorporation of cells or growth factors to regenerate damaged tissues or organs. The three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds with higher porosities having homogeneous interconnected pore network are highly useful for tissue engineering. In this context, a poly (ε- caprolactone) PCL/chitosan CHT blend membrane with a double porous morphology was developed by modified liquid induced phase inversion technique. The membrane shows: (i) surface macrovoids (big pores) which could be easily accessible for cells invasion and viability; (ii) interconnected microporous (small pores) network to transfer essential nutrients, oxygen, growth factors between the macrovoids and throughout the scaffolds. The physico-chemical properties (pore size, surface chemistry and biodegradability) of the materials have been characterized. This study shows how it is possible to tune the membrane properties by changing the PCL/CHT ratio. Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) culture was performed on the membranes and the cell viability and proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and oxygen uptake rate experiments. The experiments demonstrate that the membranes are biocompatible and can be colonized by the cells at micron scale. Confocal microscopy images show that the cells are able to adhere and penetrate inside the macrovoids of the membranes. Both cell proliferation and oxygen uptake increase with time especially on membranes with lower chitosan concentration. The presence of chitosan in the blend produces an increase of porosity that affect the entrapment of the cells inside the porous bulk of the membranes. Successful cellular proliferation of hMSCs could be useful to enhance longevity of other primary cells by production of corresponding growth factors. To test the dynamic behavior of cells on the membranes, an organ-on-chip (OOC) device has been developed with human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded on the membrane. The hydraulic resistance of the cellular barrier on the membrane has been quantified for real time trans-endothelial pressure (TEP) 20 cmH2O at 37 degree C and with living cells after 1 day and 3 day of post seeding. Results suggests this kind of polymeric scaffolds can be useful in future as an in vivo patch to repair disrupted vessels.
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Pritam Das. Micro-structured membrane as a 3D biodegradable scaffold : development, characterization and cell-matrix interaction. Biomechanics [physics.med-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III; University of Twente (Enschede, The Netherlands); Univertà della Calabria (Rende, Italia), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30282⟩. ⟨tel-02417498⟩

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