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M. J. Yip, J. L. Porter, J. A. Fyfe, C. J. Lavender, F. Portaels et al., Des études épidémiologiques ont identifié la mycobactérie productrice de mycolactone (MPM), Mycobacterium ulcerans, comme agent pathogène et ont montré que les milieux aquatiques constituent la principale source de l'infection. Plusieurs réservoirs environnementaux sont suspectés dans la transmission à l'homme mais, le mode de transmission reste inconnu. Ainsi, en supposant que leur transmission dépendrait du chevauchement de leur habitat écologique et ceux de l'homme et des animaux, 2007.

, La collecte des échantillons a abouti à 195 matrices environnementales (biofilms, sols, détritus de plantes et filtrats d'eau) issues de 15 points d'eau couramment utilisés par les communautés ; 35 aspirations à l'aiguille fine et écouvillons de lésions chez 30 cas cliniques ; des échantillons d'organes et lésions provenant de 111 rongeurs piégés dont 8 présentant des lésions suspectes. Après extraction de l'ADN, un criblage utilisant le gène mycobacterial 16S rRNA et IS2404 est effectué pour la détection de Mycobacterium spp et des MPM, suivie par un typage VNTR (MIRU1, locus 6, ST1, locus 19) des isolats de MPM. La majorité des matrices environnementales (52,8 % pour 16S rRNA, 8,7 % pour IS2404) sont contaminés par les MPM avec pour la plupart les filtrats d'eau. Tous les loci VNTR n'ont pu être amplifiés avec ces échantillons mais, leur séquençage a identifié des isolats de M. ulcerans Agy99 et M. liflandii, au niveau des environnements contaminés. De potentiels réservoirs animaux sont également identifiés par la confirmation de lésions suspectes observées chez deux rongeurs (GP3a et ST1)

, Epidemiological studies identified the mycobacteria producing mycolactone (MPMs), Mycobacterium ulcerans, as the causative agent and showed that aquatic environments represent the main source of infection. Many environmental reservoirs are suspected in transmission to humans; however, the exact transmission mode remains unknown. Thus, assuming that their transmission depends on the overlapping ecology of human and animal habitats, this study aimed to characterize NTMs, particularly M. ulcerans and other MPMs, within human-environment-animal interface, in order to elucidate possible transmission routes. The characterization was performed for suspected environments including potential reservoirs as well as for human isolates of infection cases, within five BU endemic localities. There were two in Western Centre (Zaïbo, Gorodi) and three in Eastern South, Mots clés: environnement, homme, mycobactéries non tuberculeuses, transmission, ulcère de Buruli Abstract The endemicity of Buruli ulcer (BU), a non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) infection, is the highest in Côte d'Ivoire (39.6 % of worldwide new cases in 2013)

, 35 fine needle aspirations and swabs from lesions of 30 human cases of infection; organs and lesions samples from 111 trapped rodents from which 8 were observed with BU-like lesions

Q. , R. , S. , T. , and U. , All the VNTR loci were not amplified with theses samples but sequencing of positive ones identified M. ulcerans Agy99 and M. liflandii, among contaminated environments. Potential reservoirs were also identified regarding BU-like lesions, from two rodents (GP3a and ST1) belonging to Mastomys natalensis species, which showed 94 % and 98 % similarity with M. ulcerans Agy99 strain respectively. Besides that, 94.3 % of the 35 lesions of human infection were confirmed, After DNA extraction, a screening for Mycobacterium spp and MPM using the mycobacterial 16S rRNA and IS2404 genes was performed. Then, VNTR loci (MIRU1, locus 6

, These results highlight the presence of NTMs within investigated localities and suggest the role of environment in their dissemination including small mammal as infection sources. A new VNTR typing of isolates from contaminated environments, human and animal infection cases would allow precise source tracking of NTMs involved in human infection, profile Q matching with the previously reported genotype C of M. ulcerans, common in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana