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ETUDE ENVIRONNEMENTALE ET MOLECULAIRE DES MYCOBACTERIES ISOLEES AU CENTRE ET AU SUD DE LA COTE D’IVOIRE

Abstract : The natural environment is considered a potential source of non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). They are often responsible for lung and skin infections. In Côte d'Ivoire, the only etiologic agent known to cause ulceration is Mycobacterium ulcerans, responsible for Buruli ulcer. This is a real public health problem with about 2000 cases reported annually by WHO. There is very little information on the presence of environmental Mycobacteria in Côte d'Ivoire. Objectives: Characterize probable environmental ulcerative mycobacteria in endemic areas in Côte d'Ivoire. Specifically, it involved: - Identifying environmental Mycobacteria in target areas; - Determine the physicochemical parameters of these zones likely to influence the presence of Mycobacteria; - To analyze the microbiological and molecular characteristics of strains of Mycobacteria isolated in the environment. Material: The sites (Sokrogbo, Bodo (Tiassalé), Adiopodoumé, Adzopé, loka (Bouaké), Agboville and Aghien) were studied. The biological material consisted of water and sediment samples. Methods: Classical bacteriology and biochemistry techniques were used for culture and species identification, molecular biology tests for molecular typing, photometry for nutrient determination in water, spectrophotometry and colorimetry. were used for the determination of nutrients in sediments. Results: A total of 473 samples were obtained in this study. In total, 7 fast-growing species have been identified. These are: M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. immunogenicum, M. chelonae, M. mucogenicum, M. abscessus, and Mycobacterium sp. On the physico-chemical level, the principal component analysis (PCA) made it possible to evoke statistically significant links between the presence or the absence of Mycobacteria and some physico-chemical parameters (Conductivity, nitrite, free chlorine and the type sample). Molecularly, 20% of fast-growing Mycobacteria species isolated harbored the IS2404 gene found in M. ulcerans. 9.23% of the strains harbor the Ketoreductase (Kr) gene, one of the synthetic enzymes of mycolactone. At the level of genetic analyzes using MIRU / VNTR, MIRU 1 was the most amplified sequence, and LOCUS 6 the least amplified, no known profile was identified in this study. Conclusion: This study revealed the presence of potentially pathogenic fast-growing Mycobacteria with virulence genes previously assigned to M. ulcerans, responsible for Buruli ulcer. It also confirms the role of water and sediments as a risk factor for contamination for the population vulnerable to mycobacteriosis. This study would be the first step to understand the origin of the different skin infections encountered in Côte d'Ivoire.
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Sabine Vakou. ETUDE ENVIRONNEMENTALE ET MOLECULAIRE DES MYCOBACTERIES ISOLEES AU CENTRE ET AU SUD DE LA COTE D’IVOIRE. Bactériologie. Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire); N°ORDRE 2065/2017, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-02417048⟩

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