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Nouveaux marqueurs dans la progression du cancer colorectal

Abstract : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most vaggressive cancers in the world. In order to look for new markers in progression of this cancer, all transcriptome and splice chips, as well as microRNA chips, have been previously used in the laboratory.In the first part of my thesis, transcriptomic data analysis revealed a set of deregulated transcripts in adenoma and in CRC, including overexpression of TIMP1, associated with the decrease of intron 3 retention, compared to normal mucosae. This aberrant transcript is not subject to the active mechanism of mRNAs degradation ("Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay"). Then we analysed the splicing mechanisms of TIMP1, which led us to identify hnRNPA1 as a major regulator, both in vitro and in vivo, of TIMP1 intron 3 retention via its binding in the beginning of exon 4. TIMP1i3 (+) role in the progression of CRC remains to be identified.In a second part, the analysis of microRNA data (miRs) revealed a set of deregulated miRs in CRC. The aim was to identify target genes for these miRs.We selected genes encoding splice factors whose expression was modified during cancer progression as possible targets for some of these miRs. Six interactions were shown (PRMT5/miR145; SRSF6/miR375; RBMX/miR23a; RBMX/miR24; RBMX/miR125a5p; SRSF11/miR143).Using the "Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay" technique coupled with site directed mutagenesis, we have shown that miR145 negatively regulated the expression of PRMT5 by interaction with its 3’untranslated translated region. Due to the control of the premessenger RNA splicing machinery by PRMT5, we propose that miR145 could be a general splicing regulator.
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Marion Flodrops. Nouveaux marqueurs dans la progression du cancer colorectal. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0153⟩. ⟨tel-02416042v2⟩

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