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Geomorphic impacts of the 1257 CE eruption of Samalas along the Alas strait, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Abstract : As the most powerful event in Lombok’s recent eruptive history, volcanic materials thatwere expelled by the Samalas volcano in 1257 CE covered the entire of Lombok Islandand are widespread in its eastern part. Almost 800 years after the eruption, the geomorphological impact of this eruption on the island of Lombok remains unknown,whereas its overall climatic and societal consequences are now better understood. Acombination of stratigraphic information, present-day topography, geophysical measurement with two-dimensional resistivity profiling technique, local written sources,as well as laboratory and computational analysis, were used to obtain detailed information concerning geomorphic impacts of the 1257 CE eruption of Samalas volcano on the coastal area along the Alas Strait in West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. This study provides new information related to the geomorphic impact of amajor eruption volcanic in coastal areas, in this case, on the eastern part of Lombok and the western coast of Sumbawa. In the first place, the study result shows that since the 1257 CE eruption, the landscape on the eastern part of Lombok is still evolved untilthe present time. The volume of the 1257 CE volcanic material remains about 14% from the initial volume. Secondly, the discovery of Babad Suwung provides additional explanation of Samalas eruption and may become the oldest visual observation of pyroclastic surges and volcanic fallout, following those by Pliny the Younger in 79 CE. Finally, the 1257 CE eruption of Samalas volcano has proven triggered a minor tsunami that hit Belang Island, on the west coast of Sumbawa.
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Bachtiar Wahyu Mutaqin. Geomorphic impacts of the 1257 CE eruption of Samalas along the Alas strait, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Geography. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I; Universitas Gadjah Mada (Yogyakarta, Indonésie), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018PA01H071⟩. ⟨tel-02413719v2⟩

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