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Physique attoseconde relativiste sur miroirs plasmas

Abstract : When an ultra-intense femtosecond laser beam [Iʟ > 10¹⁶ W/cm²] is focused on a solid target, the surface becomes completely ionized during the first optical cycles of the laser pulse. Due to their solid-like density and to their limited expansion into the vacuum such plasmas specularly reflect these pulses, just like ordinary mirrors do for low intensity. These plasmas are now used in many scientific applications like particle acceleration by laser light as well as high-order harmonic generation, associated to a train of attosecond pulses in the time domain. Nevertheless, to favor these emissions of light or particle, the energy transfert between the incident field and the dense plasma is crucial. The aim of this thesis is to better understand these interactions through the characterization of high-order harmonics and relativistic electron beams generated on plasma mirrors. We reported in this manuscript the first detailed experimental and numerical study of the coupling mechanisms involved between an ultra-intense laser light [Iʟ > 10¹⁸ W/cm²] and a dense plasma, and more specifically as a function of the gradient scale length Lg. These results enabled to identify two different regimes, clarifying some physical issues. Furthermore, beyond these fondamental aspects, the control of these sources is essential, particularly for futures pump-probe experiments or new spectroscopies. For that, several approaches have been studied to temporally and spatially shape these ultra-short light pulses, thus opening up new perspectives for these sources. We demonstrate in particular the generation of intense XUV vortex beam either by spatially shaping the incident IR field or the dense plasma created at the target surface as well as controlling the electron dynamics on the attosecond time scale with relativistic two-color waveforms. Finally, an innovative method based on in-situ ptychographic measurements has been developed to simultaneously characterize in time and space these ultrashort XUV light pulses, constituting one of the major challenges of the community.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02413406, version 2

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Ludovic Chopineau. Physique attoseconde relativiste sur miroirs plasmas. Physique des plasmas [physics.plasm-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS132⟩. ⟨tel-02413406v2⟩

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