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Perceptions, réglementations et mesures de la qualité des eaux de surface en France, 1854-1964. Le cas des eaux de la ville de Versailles

Abstract : The Seine River pollution both in Paris and its suburbs has been already the subject of several studies. Few studies compare perceptions that physicians, engineers, hygienists or managers might have of the quality of water resources, and the evolution of their state. This confrontation makes it possible to analyze over the long term the effectiveness of the responses made to improve quality. We have achieved this here for the city of Versailles and its waters. The first part of this work describes perceptions of river water quality by experts between 1854 and 1964 based on an analysis of hygiene and urban sanitation reviews, showing the evolution of quality indicators and of regulations. In the 19th century, Versailles has the peculiarity of being essentially fed by water from the Seine thanks to the Marly machine, through a service directly dependent on the State, consequences of its royal past. But as the water quality of the Seine River deteriorates because of the discharges from the Paris sewers, the various administrations, local and national, have to solve the question of water supply and asked for the help of experts to ensure its quality. The chemical and bacteriological analyzes carried out on waters lead to stopping the use of the Seine waters in 1894 in favor of the Marly-Croissy water table. At the same time, Versailles rejected its wastewater into two low-flowing streams: Marivel and Gally. Epidemics and complaints accompany the deterioration of their state. The numerous experiments carried out show the interest in the quality of surface water and at the same time the absence of the political will and the technical limits to improve it, leading to their sacrifice for more than 100 years.
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Submitted on : Saturday, December 14, 2019 - 1:01:57 AM
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Tatiana Dmitrieva. Perceptions, réglementations et mesures de la qualité des eaux de surface en France, 1854-1964. Le cas des eaux de la ville de Versailles. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066341⟩. ⟨tel-02410774⟩



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