Etude de la biologie des clusters de piRNAs chez Drosophila melanogaster en utilisant comme modèle le locus flamenco

Abstract : Transposable elements (TEs) are defined such as mobile DNA sequences found in genomes ofall species where they were searched. As evolutionary drivers, these mobile elements, presentin many copies in genomes, have played a major role in the genome dynamics by generatingmutations and chromosomal rearrangements. Nevertheless, being major genome constituents,they must be finely regulated in order to preserve the genomic integrity, and thus, to maintainthe balance between variability and stability of genomes. In order to protect the geneticinformation of the host transmitted to the offspring, the gonadal TE regulation is carried outby the piRNAs pathway, an interfering RNA pathway conserved in animals. Although this isrelatively well described in Drosophila and in mouse, some steps of piRNA pathway are stillmisunderstood. During my thesis, I explored various aspects of piRNA cluster biology, usingthe flamenco locus as a model. This piRNA cluster is the main piRNA producer in thefollicular cells of Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. First, I analyzed the spatio-temporalwindows of flamenco piRNA cluster expression throughout the Drosophila development,from embryo to adulthood. Then, I searched, in vivo, the flamenco transcript sequence thatwould be sufficient to induce the addressing of a chimeric transcript to the piRNA processingpathway. I also explored the impact of some factors on the management of artificialtranscripts by piRNAs. Finally, I was interested in the gene regulation that flamenco-derivedpiRNAs could make in Drosophila ovaries by searching, through bioinformatics andmolecular biology approaches, the potentially recognized genes, and therefore, regulated byflamenco piRNAs. All of these in vivo research axes will advance in the understanding of thebiology of piRNA clusters as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the piRNAbiogenesis in Drosophila.
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Nolwenn Mouniée. Etude de la biologie des clusters de piRNAs chez Drosophila melanogaster en utilisant comme modèle le locus flamenco. Génétique animale. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC029⟩. ⟨tel-02409261⟩

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