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Optimisation de la performance en trail : étude des réponses cardiorespiratoires et des facteurs de la performance en course en montée vs descente

Abstract : It is admitted that uphill running mostly elicits concentric muscle actions whereas downhill running requires braking muscle actions inducing preferentially eccentric muscle action. Consequently, high running speed can be achieved in downhill (i.e., a high level of mechanical stress), despite low metabolic demands (i.e., low metabolic power). Using 3 experimental studies, this doctoral thesis explores the specific physiology of downhill vs uphill running as well as its physiological determinants. Our first study shows lower magnitude of the cardiorespiratory responses, a more superficial ventilation pattern and inverse V̇O2 and HR slow components in submaximal constant and same downhill vs uphill running velocity (8,5 km·h-1, 15% slope). During maximal incremental downhill vs uphill and level running, our study 2 part A demonstrates that well-trained endurance athletes, accustomed to downhill running, can reach maximal heart rate but not V̇O2max in downhill running. When downhill and uphill running are performed at similar metabolic demand (70% V̇O2max), our study 2 part B demonstrates that downhill running (19 km·h-1, -15% slope) elicits greater cardiorespiratory responses (HR and V̇E), a significant V̇O2 slow component and exacerbates muscle fatigue compared to uphill running (6 km·h-1, +15% slope). Finally, a field study (study 3) shows that 5-km downhill vs uphill running performances share some physiological predictors (V̇O2max, lower limb muscle strength) although in different proportions. In addition, this study also demonstrates that both time-trial performances are also determined by specific physiological predictors (i.e., musculotendinous stiffness for downhill and body mass index for uphill running). All in all, our results further our understanding of the specific physiology of downhill vs uphill running and open the way to training applications in trail runners with the ultimate goal to optimize trail running performance.
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Submitted on : Friday, December 13, 2019 - 12:17:10 PM
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Marcel Lemire. Optimisation de la performance en trail : étude des réponses cardiorespiratoires et des facteurs de la performance en course en montée vs descente. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université de Strasbourg, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019STRAJ029⟩. ⟨tel-02409157⟩

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