Raison et création : le constructivisme et l’institutionnalisme postmétaphysiques de Cornelius Castoriadis

Abstract : The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to expose Castoriadis’ poïetical and institutional answer to the following question: how can we constitute a practical universality in a postmetaphysical context. Starting with a definition of political philosophy as the progressive and institutional objectification of reason, I first show how the modern radical critic of metaphysical thoughts and the modern emergence of a procedural conception of reason were both problematic for political philosophy. The thesis is then divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to Castoriadis’ philosophy and presents his own critics of metaphysical thinking, his ontology and his theory of knowledge. I then follow the interpretative thesis according to which Castoriadis’ philosophy can be characterized as an ''ontopoïetical pluralistic constructivism'' The second part is about his conception of practical reason, which I interpret as a “postmetaphysical institutionalism”. I conclude by showing that Castoriadis offers not only new mediations between politics and philosophy but also an original conception of practical universality in the history of political philosophy. Using a comparative method, I put forward Castoriadis’ thoughts through a comparison with other philosophies that share common problems and thesis, e.g. the Hegelian-Marxian tradition and the philosophies of difference.
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Thibault Tranchant. Raison et création : le constructivisme et l’institutionnalisme postmétaphysiques de Cornelius Castoriadis. Philosophie. Université Rennes 1; Université de Sherbrooke (Québec, Canada), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019REN1S040⟩. ⟨tel-02407457⟩

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