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Investigation of FEM numerical simulation for the process of metal additive manufacturing in macro scale

Abstract : Additive manufacturing (AM) has become a new option for the fabrication of metallic parts in industry. However, there are still some limitations for this application, especially the unfavourable final shape and undesired macroscopic properties of metallic parts built in AM systems. The distortion or crack due to the residual stress of these parts leads usually to severe problems for some kinds of metal AM technology. In an AM system, the final quality of a metallic part depends on many process parameters, which are normally optimized by a series of experiments on AM machines. In order to reduce the considerable time consumption and financial expense of AM experiments, the numerical simulation dedicated to AM process is a prospective alternative for metallic part fabricated by additive manufacturing. Because of the multi-scale character in AM process and the complex geometrical structures of parts, most of the academic researches in AM simulation concentrated on the microscopic melting pool. Consequently, the macroscopic simulation for the AM process of a metallic part becomes a current focus in this domain. In this thesis, we first study the pre-processing of AM simulation on Finite Element Method (FEM). The process of additive manufacturing is a multi-physics problem of coupled fields (thermal, mechanical, and metallurgical fields). The macroscopic simulation is conducted in two different levels with some special pre-processing work. For the layer level, the reconstruction of 3D model is conducted from the scan path file of AM machine, based on the inverse manipulation of offsetting-clipping algorithm. For the part level, the 3D model from CAD is reconstructed into a voxel-based mesh, which is convenient for a part with complex geometry. The residual stress of a part is analysed under different preheat temperatures and different process parameters. These simulations imply the potential technique of reducing residual stress by the optimisation of process parameters, instead of the traditional way by increasing preheat temperature. Based on the FEM simulation platform above, two simulations at line level are also studied in this thesis, aiming at the relation between the AM process and part's final quality. These examples demonstrate the feasibility of using macroscopic simulations to improve the quality control during the AM process. In the first task, dataset of heating parameters and residual stress are generated by AM simulation. The correlation between them is studied by using some regression algorithm, such as artificial neural network. In the second task, a PID controller for power-temperature feedback loop is integrated into AM process simulation and the PID auto-tuning is numerically investigated instead of using AM machine. Both of the two tasks show the important role of AM macroscopic process simulation, which may replace or combine with the numerous trial and error of experiments in metal additive manufacturing.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 10, 2019 - 4:11:37 PM
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Shuai Chen. Investigation of FEM numerical simulation for the process of metal additive manufacturing in macro scale. Mechanical engineering [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSEI048⟩. ⟨tel-02402859⟩

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