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Thérapie génique de l'insuffisance cardiaque par les phosphodiestérases

Abstract : Acute stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs), for example during physical activity, leads to the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP in cardiomyocytes, which triggers a cascade of events leading to the increase of cardiac function. While acute β-AR stimulation is beneficial to the heart, chronic β-AR activation is detrimental because it promotes cardiac remodeling and ultimately leads to heart failure (HF). HF is defined by the heart's inability to overcome hemodynamic needs of the body. While the majority of patients die of worsening heart function, a significant proportion dies suddenly of cardiac arrhythmias.Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are crucial enzymes since they allow not only to terminate cAMP signals by degrading this second messenger into inactive 5’AMP but permit their spatial organization in subcellular compartments. HF is accompanied by profound rearrangements of the β-AR pathway and the expression of PDEs is modified under pathological conditions, thus disrupting cAMP intracellular compartmentation. The expression of one of these enzymes, PDE4B, is decreased in cardiac hypertrophy and the invalidation of the gene encoding PDE4B promotes ventricular arrhythmias under β-AR stimulation in mice. Conversely, the expression of another enzyme, PDE2A, is up-regulated in human and animal models of HF which may constitute an important defense mechanism during cardiac stress since its overexpression attenuates hypertrophy induced by norepinephrine or phenylephrine and limits cardiac arrhythmias.The purpose of my work was to test the hypothesis that an increase of PDE activity could constitute an alternative to conventional HF treatments to limit cardiac remodeling, HF progression and associated arrhythmias. To do so, I performed a cardiac gene therapy in mouse models of HF using serotype 9 adeno-associated viruses (AAV9) encoding for PDE4B or PDE2A. My results suggest that this approach may be a promising new therapeutic strategy during HF by limiting cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and could protect ventricular arrhythmias only when PDE2A is overexpressed.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 10, 2019 - 10:45:16 AM
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Aurélia Bourcier. Thérapie génique de l'insuffisance cardiaque par les phosphodiestérases. Cardiologie et système cardiovasculaire. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS321⟩. ⟨tel-02401723⟩

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