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Identification de biomarqueurs prédictifs de l'efficacité du nivolumab dans le traitement de patients atteints de cancer bronchique non à petites cellules de stade avancé.

Abstract : The recent introduction of immunotherapy has disrupted the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nivolumab, an antibody targeting the immune checkpoint inhibitor PD-1, has shown remarkable results in seconde-line setting after failure of standard first-line chemotherapy. However, only a quarter of patients benefits from this therapy. To date, no predictive biomarker of the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab has been identified in a clear and consensual manner. The research for predictive biomarkers of efficacy or resistance to this treatment is, therefore, a major challenge.The emergence of high-throughput sequencing over the past decade has had a significant impact on clinical and fundamental research, making possible to understand the genetics of a tumor as a whole. These new techniques are in addition to other already proven techniques such as immunophenotyping or immunohistochemistry available to researchers for extensive analysis of tumor and patient characteristics.The objective of this work was to identify predictors of the efficacy of nivolumab in the treatment of advanced NSCLC using these different technologies. To do this, our study focused on a multicentre cohort of 115 NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab in the second- or third-line after failure of a cytotoxic doublet. Within the limits of sample availability and quality, the genetic, transcriptomic and immunohistochemical profiles of the tumor as well as the clinical and immunological profiles of the patients were analysed.Our results highlight major predictive markers of response to nivolumab. Thus, a good response to the first-line cytotoxic doublet promotes optimal efficacy of subsequent online nivolumab. In addition, regular monitoring of the evolution of a patient's immunosuppressive myeloid cells and cytotoxic cells expressing TIM-3 can detect primary or secondary resistance to treatment. On the other hand, the joint estimation of PD-L1 and CD8 protein expressions by RNA sequencing is a major predictive marker of response. Its predictive capacity surpasses that of the PD-L1 estimate alone and that of other previously established transcriptomic signatures composed of a larger number of genes. Finally, the study of tumor exome sequencing shows the importance of extensive analysis of tumor genetics and the need not only to focus on the estimation its mutation burden.In this work, we were able to identify predictive markers of the efficacy of nivolumab in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Our results highlight the importance of using several technologies for the characterization of tumor biology and patient immunity in a process of biomarker discovery and the construction of predictive models of the efficacy of immunotherapies.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 9, 2019 - 9:57:09 AM
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Corentin Richard. Identification de biomarqueurs prédictifs de l'efficacité du nivolumab dans le traitement de patients atteints de cancer bronchique non à petites cellules de stade avancé.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UBFCI008⟩. ⟨tel-02399417⟩

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