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Approche géographique de l’Accident Vasculaire Cérébral, accessibilité et analyse spatiale : application à la région Rhône-Alpes

Abstract : Stroke is a sudden and brutal pathology that can lead to serious sequelae. The damage to major neurological functions caused by stroke explains these severe sequelae. In the long term, a disability of very varied nature and severity most often persists, often accompanied by significant depressive syndromes and emotional and sometimes behavioural disorders. In France, stroke is the third leading cause of death among men (13,003 deaths) and the first among women (18,343 deaths) in 2013. The management of stroke patients consists of several sequences: the pre-hospital phase, with an urgent need for transfer to a stroke unit (UNV), then acute hospitalization, with emergency therapeutic management and, finally, direct return home. During the pre-hospital phase, the notion of urgency is essential: the sooner the patient is treated, the more likely he is to reduce the risk of serious sequelae. Indeed, a victim loses 2 million neurons every minute during the acute phase of stroke. Two treatments, which may be complementary, exist: thrombolysis and thrombectomy. They are carried out in the treatment reference structures, the stroke unit (UNV). Areas are not equal in terms of stroke management, either in terms of accessibility or in terms of the spatial distribution of stroke occurrences. The geography of health is thus an essential discipline to address these issues. Geographic tools allow to target populations at risk of delay, but also at higher risk of occurrence. This research work thus pursues different complementary objectives. First, this work aims to describe the patient's accessibility to treatment, regardless of where he is treated, from the moment he calls the SAMU centre 15, depending on the type of vectors of care (SAMU, fire brigade), traffic conditions and therapeutic strategy. In this way, populations at risk of delayed care, and possibly lack of access to treatment, can be identified. In addition, the second objective is to describe the spatial distribution of stroke occurrences and characterize models of spatial distribution of stroke. This distribution is then analyzed using different territorial variables (socio-economic, facilities, environmental) to understand the causes of the over-representation of stroke in some areas. In order to conduct a global characterization of the explanatory causes of stroke occurrence, time series analyses were also conducted to determine, among other things, whether a type of time at risk of stroke exists. The analyses conducted throughout this work were based on data from the thrombolytic stroke registry of a French emergency network called Réseau des Urgences de la Vallée du Rhône (RESUVal), as well as data from the STROKE 69 cohort in the Rhone. In addition, the evaluation of accessibility in the department was able to benefit from the use of the SDMIS database.This work is intended to be very operational, making it possible to propose ways to improve stroke management in the region: in terms of the organization and distribution of structures that can treat patients, but also in terms of public policies to raise awareness among populations at risk of having a stroke
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Submitted on : Friday, December 6, 2019 - 1:09:09 PM
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Julie Freyssenge. Approche géographique de l’Accident Vasculaire Cérébral, accessibilité et analyse spatiale : application à la région Rhône-Alpes. Santé. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1247⟩. ⟨tel-02397059⟩

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