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Réponse des espèces lignicoles à la disponibilité des habitats en forêt tempérée : approche multi-échelles du micro-habitat au paysage

Abstract : Intensive forestry induces a simplification of forest stand structure, composition, and dynamics, resulting in a decrease of density and diversity of old-growth forest attributes (deadwood and tree-related microhabitats). These elements represent critical habitats for lignicolous species. At the landscape scale, forest management planning create a spatial discontinuity of these microhabitats, which can be perceived as a fragmentation process for many species. Although habitat fragmentation is currently recognized as one of the major threats to biodiversity, its impact on species in managed temperate forest are still poorly understood. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of microhabitat availability (quantity and configuration) on species communities and populations, at multiple spatial scales, in order to provide evidence-based recommendations regarding the spatial arrangement of conservation strategies. We proposed a statistical methodology to predict the microhabitats distribution within the complex of the Compiègne forest (France). Based on this predictive mapping, we showed that different guilds of saproxylic beetles, defined according to their life history traits related to dispersal abilities, respond to the landscape structure at different spatial scales. Modelling metapopulation dynamics of an epixylic bryophyte (Dicranum viride) has highlighted the importance of dispersal on colonization/extinction processes that underlie the species’ occurrence patterns observed at the forest scale. Our results emphasize the key role of deadwood and tree-related microhabitats, which can be considered as relevant management leverage. Increase their quantity and optimize their spatial arrangement within and between forest stands, appears to be essential for persistence of the lignicolous species within managed forests.
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Gwendoline Percel. Réponse des espèces lignicoles à la disponibilité des habitats en forêt tempérée : approche multi-échelles du micro-habitat au paysage. Biologie végétale. Université d'Orléans, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ORLE2055⟩. ⟨tel-02394901⟩

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