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Rôle des adipokines dans la régulation de l’activation des macrophages pulmonaires humains

Abstract : Obesity promotes the development of chronic bronchial diseases (asthma, COPD) and complicates their management, induces sleep breathing disorders and increases susceptibility to respiratory infections. Adipocytea are a source of mediator production including adipokines. Among these, adiponectin (APN) is a 30kDa protein that can associate in multimers of variable molecular weight. It circulates at high level but its serum concentration decreases with weight gain. APN is involved in immunoregulation and pulmonary development. But the pro or anti-inflammatory role of the APN is still a matter for debate. The association between serum levels of APN and the occurrence of bronchial diseases is not clearly demonstrated in humans. We explored the role of adipokines within the respiratory system. In particular, we studied the effect of the APN on the production of cytokines by pulmonary macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells. We obtained lung specimens from patients operated for carcinoma, from which we carried out primary cultures of parenchymal explants, pulmonary macrophages or bronchial epithelial cells and we also prepared bronchial rings for study in organ bath. We have revealed an in situ production of APN by human lung tissue, which is correlated with patient weight. We have verified that APN receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipR2) were both expressed by pulmonary macrophages, bronchial explants, and bronchial epithelial cells. We have treated human lung macrophages with APN (3-10-30 μg/ml) before stimulation with LPS (10 ng / ml) or Poly I: C (10 ng/ml) or IL-4 (10 ng/ml).We have shown that the APN decreased the production of M1 cytokines induced by LPS and Poly I: C (IL-6, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL8, TNFa) as well as those of M2 cytokines induced by IL-4 (CCL13, CCL18, CCL22). AdipoRon, a synthetic adiponectin receptor agonist, exhibited the same effects as the recombinant protein. In comparison, leptin at its highest concentration (1000 ng/ml) induced the production of M1-type cytokines (IL-6, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, TNF-α) by unstimulated macrophages whereas visfatin and chemerin did not reveal any effect on cytokine production by macrophages. Only APN demonstrated an effect on bronchial epithelial cells: decreasing the production of CXCL1 and CCL2 at basal state and after stimulationwith TNF (50 ng / ml) but increasing production of IL6, CCL20 and CXCL8 in the basal situation. We have completed this work by experiments on the regulation of bronchial tone by adipokines, using bronchial rings in isolated organ baths. These results have been the subject of a European patent application. This work is the first looking at the effect of APN and AdipoRon on primary human pulmonary macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells. APN is able to modulate the polarization of these cells. Adipokines are essential for understanding the respiratory burden of obesity.
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Helene Salvator. Rôle des adipokines dans la régulation de l’activation des macrophages pulmonaires humains. Immunologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLV082⟩. ⟨tel-02394767⟩

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