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Détermination de la nature et de l'origine des défauts cristallins dans le silicium monolike

Abstract : Monolike silicon (ML Si), is a material obtained by directional solidification on monocrystalline seeds and dedicated to photovoltaic applications. This thesis focuses on the structural quality of these crystals of several hundred kilograms that contain defects that potentially affect the photoelectric yield. The goal is to understand the mechanisms by which these defects nucleate and multiply in order to inhibit them. Since the development of sub-grain boundaries (SGB), which are the main factors for the losses of photovoltaic yields, is potentially related to the thermomechanical stresses that develop during a thermal cycle, we simulated numerically the temperatures of an oven containing an ingot over a complete cycle (fusion, growth, cooling). From the temperature values, we were able to establish a map of the thermomechanical stresses as well as their temporal evolution. In parallel, we used several structural and electrical characterization techniques to analyze crystalline defects and their distribution in the ingot at different scales. During the cycle, a first maximum of stress at the end of the heating stage generates dislocations and precursors of SGB in the seed. The second stress maximum at the end of solidification / start of cooling stage leads to the final organization of background dislocations present in the whole ingot. Once the SGB appear, they extend laterally as the solid-liquid interface progresses. These SGB have a structure consisting of sessile and vertical dislocations, which follow the solidification front and also mobile dislocations that interact with this pre-existing structure. The integration of these mobile dislocations, which can occur just below the solid-liquid interface or during cooling, increases the misorientation of the SGB. [...]
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Arthur Lantreibecq. Détermination de la nature et de l'origine des défauts cristallins dans le silicium monolike. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30311⟩. ⟨tel-02393023⟩

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