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Interaction entre ultrasons de puissance et fluides complexes

Abstract : The evolution of an initially homogeneous solution consisting of two species subjected to a thermal gradient which generates a mass transfer, which can lead to the separation species from the binary fluid, is studied. The configuration chosen to study the separation is a rectangular (or parallelepipedic) cell, horizontal and placed in the gravitational field. The presence of a piezoelectric source on one of the vertical walls of the cavity makes it possible to generate a stationary flow on a large scale. The flow is induced by the propagation of ultra-sonic waves within the viscous fluid : the dissipation of the acoustic energy of the wave within the fluid is called Eckart streaming. We seek to optimize the separation by combining thermal gradient and acoustic source. The first part consists of the study of the isothermal flow generated by the ultrasonic wave in a monoconstituent fluid. After calculating the acoustic intensity field with the Rayleigh integral, the profile is implemented in a Comsol Multiphysics finite element code. The numerical results are compared with previous experimental results. In a second part, we consider a cavity containing a binary fluid. A configuration heated from the top is privilegied to allow the insertion of an acoustic source. The separation (difference of mass fraction between the two ends of the cell) is determined analytically using the Maple software as a function of the control parameters of the problem. 2D and 3D numerical simulations showed a good agreement between the analytical and numerical results, for a constant acoustic parameter. The problem considered depends on eight dimensionless parameters. Three of them are specific to the nature of the binary fluid : the Lewis number Le, the Prandtl number Pr and the separation factor ψ. There are then two control parameters, the thermal Rayleigh number Ra and the adimensional acoustic force A. Finally, the other dimensionless parameters are the two aspect ratios of the cavity, as well as the relative thickness of the beam.
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Thibaut Dochy. Interaction entre ultrasons de puissance et fluides complexes. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30298⟩. ⟨tel-02392921⟩

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