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Structural, microstructural and electrical properties of yttrium-doped barium titanate for the elaboration of multilayer ceramic capacitors

Abstract : Doped barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) with rare-earth elements (REE) is used as dielectric in the manufacture of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). The most common REE oxide employed as dopant in the commercial formulation of BT powder for fabrication of MLCCs is Y2O3, because it results in similar properties than adding Ho2O3, Er2O3 or Dy2O3, and it is less expensive. Other additives, such as Mn, Mg, and Ca contribute to the global distribution of the electronic defects that can be generated when the doping ions are inserted into the lattice, while SiO2 is used as a sintering additive. The perovskite structure of the BT can host a wide range of dopants that can substitute either Ba or Ti in the lattice. There are reports of secondary phases, particularly those known as pyrochlores Y2Ti2O7, related to Y2O3 as BT dopant, that are supposed to be the cause of long term failure mechanisms of MLCC's under nominal operation. The purpose of this work is to characterize BT doped with different concentrations of Y2O3, validating its possible contribution to the formation of secondary phases, and evaluating reliability of MLCCs prepared with this kind of materials. The role of Y2O3 was evaluated on two kinds of raw materials, the first one is pure BaTiO3 (< 100 ppm Y) and the second kind is a commercial formulation designed for MLCCs known as X7R (-55 °C and 125 °C, 15% tolerance) which, among other elements, already contains 1 wt% of Y2O3. Powders and ceramics with different Y3+, as Y2O3, doping concentration (1 wt% up to 20 wt%) were prepared and subsequently thermally treated or sintered, respectively. Heat treatment of powder was conducted on air, while sintering of ceramics (powder compacted at 2 MPa) was carried out both, in air and reducing atmosphere (1310 °C in air for 3 h, two steps: 1310 °C then 1150 °C 15 h, and a reducing atmosphere N2, H2, H2O at 1310 °C for 3 h). Regarding Y2O3 addition, the phase transition from tetragonal to a mixture of tetragonal and cubic was observed as Y2O3 concentration increases in the thermally treated powder and in the corresponding ceramics. [...]
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Ana Maria Hernández-López. Structural, microstructural and electrical properties of yttrium-doped barium titanate for the elaboration of multilayer ceramic capacitors. Materials. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30294⟩. ⟨tel-02389540⟩

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