L'intermédialité dans la science-fiction française de La Planète Sauvage à Kaena (1973-2003)

Abstract : At the beginning of the 1970s, in France, science fiction subculture engages in its countercultural moment. Contestations and claims of legitimacy come from different media: Laloux defends a national, artisanal and engaged conception of animation (La Planète sauvage, 1973), French “bande dessinée” shows new aesthetic and graphic ambitions in magazines referring to themselves as “adult” (Metal hurlant, 1975, with a special focus on Mœbius and Bilal), and literary science fiction becomes more and more politicised, confronted to the legacy of the British New Wave and to the ideology born with Mai 68 (Andrevon, Les Hommes-machines contre Gandahar, 1969). Thirty years later, the “multimedia revolution” implies a technical and cultural convergence between videogames, hyperrealistic special effects in cinema, and 3D computer generated animation movies. In this context, the novelizations of Pierre Bordage (Atlantis, 1998, adapted from an adventure video game by Cryo Interactive, and Kaena, 2003, from a European 3D digital animation movie) question the still rare interactions between literature and “new media” in French science fiction, at the turning point of the 2000s and as we move into the digital moment of existence of popular fictions. Considering this area and this period of time, this thesis examines intermediality in French science fiction as a historical and rhetorical construction, used by the actors to promote certain representations of the genre and to take position in conflicts about generic definition, especially regarding the relations with American productions, the industrial question, and the place of the author. I identify three moments of intermediality in French science fiction during that period of time (1973-2003). I consider the term moment in its temporal sense (a duration) and in its physical one (a synchronic measure of a dynamic phenomenon). This historical analysis of intermediality’s forms and discourses shows how the French « macro-texte » (Bréan) evolves in regard to the global « mega-text » of the genre (Broderick). This leads to study secondly what I call the « SF-effect », in relation with that historical and cultural context, from a semiotic, cognitive and narrative point of view. I engage in clarifying semiotic modalities of the SF-effect by considering relations between novum (a strange diegetic reality) and estrangement (a strange formal device), both depending on media and generic architextual determinants. Discussing the famous theory of Suvin, I propose an intermedial analytical framework of the cultural poetics of science fiction. Visual SF-effect is specifically investigated, and then confronted to the verbal estrangement figures, leading to a narrative intersemiotic approach of science fiction “texts” (in a broad meaning) when they are produced by media using different systems of signs. Finally, I consider the problem of world building and how novums and estrangements intersect in productions from different media when these productions share the same fictional world. I discuss the concept of transfictionality forged by Saint-Gelais and the propositions of Besson and Letourneux about massively transmedial contemporary fictional worlds. I distinguish four intermedial “world-effects” (worlds to be built, worlds to be diversify, helical worlds, worlds to be played) in the specific French biotope of the genre, which may also offer helpful support to analyse other cultural and generic phenomena.
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Aurélie Huz. L'intermédialité dans la science-fiction française de La Planète Sauvage à Kaena (1973-2003). Linguistique. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0078⟩. ⟨tel-02385895v3⟩

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