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Altérations anatomo-fonctionnelles des interneurones à parvalbumine dans un modèle murin de la maladie d'Alzheimer

Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder inducing cognitive dysfunction, in particular memory loss. The use of murine models of AD have highlighted alterations of the neural activity of hippocampal and cortical networks leading to alteration of brain oscillations and spontaneous epileptic activities. Interestingly, it has also been found in AD patients and AD mice that GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) are dysfunctioning, inducing a decrease in gamma oscillations associated with cognitive deficit. Thus, we hypothesized that Tg2576 mice exhibit progressive alteration of PV interneurons, and their specific extracellular matrix (PNN). These would induce aberrant cerebral activity (hypersynchrony, alteration of gamma oscillations and their association with theta oscillations) sustaining cognitive deficits. This work demonstrates that Tg2576 mice exhibit an alteration of gamma power during a cognitive task. On the other hand, the specific activation of PV neurons allows the generation of gamma oscillation in our anesthetized mice, however we haven't been able to try enhancing gamma during a cognitive task. We have also observed a decrease in the number of hippocampal PV neurons and their PNN at an early age of pathology, which can be restored by a transient stay in an enriched environment. Finally, we demonstrate that Tg2576 mice exhibit epileptiform activities, particularly during paradoxical sleep (PS), as well as an alteration of gamma oscillations and their coupling with theta oscillations during PS, as early as 1.5 months of age. Thus, these results allow to better characterize the impact of AD on PV neurons and the oscillatory phenomena associated with their function.
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Vanessa Cattaud. Altérations anatomo-fonctionnelles des interneurones à parvalbumine dans un modèle murin de la maladie d'Alzheimer. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30293⟩. ⟨tel-02383984⟩

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