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Impact du microenvironnement dans la composition, la plasticité et la formation des invadosomes

Abstract : Invadosomes are plastic and dynamic invasive structures interacting with the microenvironement. Those structures are involved in several functions as adhesion, mecanotransduction and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). My PhD work focuses on i) the study of the invadosomes composition by mass spectrometry and ii) on the impact of microenvironmental elements on the formation of those invasive structures.i) Invadosomes are multi-protein complexes in which all partners are not yet fully identified. In the laboratory, a new approach combining laser micordissection followed by mass spectrometry analysis was developed. This technique has been applied to the study of invadosome rosettes. We have demontrasted a new function associated with indosomes, defining them as active sites of protein translation. Invadosomes, however, are plastic structures whose formation and morphology are modulated by different elements of the environment. We now wish to determine the common and specific partners between the different invadosomes organizations in order to identify the molecules involved in their plasticity.The invadosomes formation can be induced by different elements of the microenvironment such as growth factors or the composition and rigidity of the ECM. TGF-β is a growth factor involved in the invadosomes formation, in the ECM rigidity and in liver fibrosis that can lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. We have studied the impact of TGF-β in the formation of linear invadosomes in the context of type I collagen. We show that TGF-β modulates the molecular machinery associated with linear invadosomes by inducing the expression of DDR1 and MT1-MMP, as well as elements involved in their formation, such as collagen I. These modulations are dependent on the TGF-β canonical signaling pathway through Smad4 and promote the formation and activity of linear invadosomes. In addition, TGF-β induces an overexpression of LOXL2, which is a collagen cross-linking enzyme, increasing the matrix stiffness and promotes the formation of these structures.Taken together, these results enabled us to better define the elements involved in the composition and formation of invadosomes.
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Elodie Henriet. Impact du microenvironnement dans la composition, la plasticité et la formation des invadosomes. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0797⟩. ⟨tel-02381992⟩

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