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. Maniacs-;-rifkin, Benjamin Tincq, co-founder of Ouishare, defines what he labels as well "sharing economy" as "the set of social practices and business models based on horizontal structures and members contributions of a community" (Tincq, 2014) 94 . Rachel Botsman, in turn, speaks of "an economic model based on sharing underutilized assets from spaces to skills to stuff for monetary or non-monetary benefits. It is currently largely talked about in relation to P2P marketplaces but equal opportunity lies in the B2C models, 2011.

S. Wagner and . Blablacar, Arun Sundararajan, an economist that specializes in the platform economy, defines what he also labels "sharing economy" as an "economic system" that has five characteristics: largely market-based (i.e. the creation of markets and enabling of exchanging of goods and emergence of new services); high-impact capital (it allows "everything, from assets and skills to time and money, to be used at levels closer to their full capacity"); "crowd-based 'networks' rather than centralized institutions or 'hierarchies'" and "blurring lines fully employed and casual labor, defines the "sharing economy" as "the optimization of underexploited resources thanks to a digital system that allows approaching supply to demand, to create a community of suppliers and demanders, p.96, 2014.

, On the riders' side, two types of Uber competitors can be identified: other ride-hailing platforms (the main and only national one in the United States being Lyft) and other non-platform-based ride-hailing services, out of which the most relevant ones are taxis. On the drivers' side of the market, given that the number of taxi licenses is limited by regulators and their price is too onerous for the vast majority of Uber and Lyft drivers 110 , taxis are not to be considered as relevant competitors. In other words, ride-hailing platforms do not compete with taxis for drivers because ride-hailing apps' drivers can very rarely become taxi drivers, Dunne (2018) argues that Uber's market is the underlying services market (the the market (Evans and Noels, vol.109, 2005.

, Uber competes over users on both sides of the platforms (drivers and riders), ideally, the measurement of market shares should be done on both sides: the share of rides and the share of full-time equivalent drivers of each competitor. Unfortunately, there is no such available data on drivers. Therefore, we will have to limit our analysis to measurements of market shares that only consider the riders' side of the market. Nevertheless, ceteris paribus, unless mean waiting time increases considerably, because of the existence of indirect network effects, an increase in a firm's riders' market share will translate into an increase in its drivers' market share. Otherwise, average waiting time would increase because of an excess of demand for rides, which would in turn reduce riders' market shares as passengers shift to competitors with lower mean waiting times. Then, although we will not be able to measure drivers' market shares, we can make conclusions about their dynamics (and not their magnitudes) by looking at how the riders' market shares evolve. This is not very problematic as what we need to corroborate is if there is a widening gap between Uber's and its competitors, Having defined Uber's relevant market, we should begin by studying the evolution of its market shares in these markets. Two observations need to be made in this respect before starting studying Ubers' market shares. First, because, as said above

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