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Distribution des parents sauvages du quinoa cultivé en lien avec les pratiques et usages des communautés andines dans la région de Puno au Pérou

Abstract : Lake Titicaca, the cradle of pre-Columbian civilizations and one of the world’s main centres of domestication for farmed plant species, lies 3,800 m above sea level in the central Andean Highlands between Peru and Bolivia. The region is acknowledged as the centre of origin of quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. The greatest genetic diversity of quinoa and its wild relatives is concentrated there. Our research was conducted in the Puno region (Peru), which remains one of the main quinoa producing regions in the world. Quinoa displays spatial distribution along a North-South climate gradient in the region, with differentiation into mostly elevation-related, agro-ecological zones that explain its genetic diversity. Seven main quinoa crop wild relatives currently exist there: C. ambrosioides L., C. incisum Poiret, C. pallidicaule Aellen, C. petiolare Kunth, C. hircinum Schrad., C. quinoa ssp. melanospermum Hunz. and C. carnosolum Moq. This diversity of plant genetic resources is of great value for the adaptive evolution of quinoa, especially under the effect of climate change. This PhD thesis deals with the economic and cultural importance of quinoa, which is both a food resource in the Andean regions and an international commodity due to its exceptional nutritional qualities (protein-rich). This economic opportunity may have impacts on local food security, agrobiodiversity and agro-ecosystem management. One way of investigating this issue is to examine how the distribution of crop wild relatives is linked to the way quinoa cultivation is spatially organized. The thesis analysed how Andean farming communities incorporate the presence of wild relatives in their quinoa-related management and farming practices. Participatory mapping and ethnobotanical surveys were carried out with members of six villages chosen according to biogeographical criteria along a North South gradient, combined with data related to elevation and the proximity to Lake Titicaca. In order to show how the socio-spatial dynamics of the Andean environment are changing, notably linked to changes in quinoa growing, chorematic modelling was applied to two periods, before and after 1970, which was a pivotal year for Peruvian farming (agrarian reform, territorial rights of indigenous communities). The distribution of quinoa crop wild relatives seems to be closely linked to how the agro-ecosystem is spatially organized. Local communities keep these species for their multiple food, medicinal and cultural uses in natural areas, grazing areas, around and in farmed fields. This results from the dynamic management organized by rural communities, and from knowledge of those species passed down through the generations, by both women and men. However, management is changing under the pressure of global challenges arising from the international quinoa market, which calls for fewer wild parents in farmed fields. To conclude, the thesis looks at the sustainability of management and farming practices with a view to dynamic in situ conservation of wild and cultivated biodiversity. Choremes are used to place the results in historical perspective, to see how the management of these different species by local communities is evolving. In terms of implications, two types of project could be considered. Developing projects that keep quinoa crop wild relatives in farmed fields promotes the introduction of genes of interest, helping quinoa to adapt to ecological conditions being modified by climate change. Likewise, specific projects for in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity, which consider natural and cultivated areas as a coherent whole, are a way of managing gene pools that is important for agriculture and for feeding the world.
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Francesca Fagandini Ruiz. Distribution des parents sauvages du quinoa cultivé en lien avec les pratiques et usages des communautés andines dans la région de Puno au Pérou. Sociologie. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019IAVF0001⟩. ⟨tel-02379101⟩

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