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Backside absorbing layer microscopy : a new tool for the investigation of 2D materials

Abstract : Optical microscopy based on anti-reflective coatings is a simple yet powerful characterization tool which notably allowed the first observation of graphene in 2004. Since then, the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has developed rapidly both at the fundamental and applied levels. These ultrathin materials present inhomogeneities (edges, grain boundaries, multilayers, etc.) which strongly impact their physical and chemical properties. Thus their local characterization is essential. This thesis focuses on a recent enhanced-contrast optical microscopy technique, named BALM, based on ultrathin (2-5 nm) and strongly light-absorbing (metallic) anti-reflective layers. The goal is notably to evaluate the benefits of this technique for the study of 2D materials and their chemical reactivity. The various levers to improve 2D materials observation were investigated and optimized for two model materials: graphene oxide and MoS₂ monolayers. The investigation of molecular layer deposition dynamic notably showed the extreme sensitivity of BALM for such measurements and the significant contribution of multilayers anti-reflective coatings to enhance contrast during the observation of 2D materials. One of the main assets of BALM comes from its combination to other techniques. We particularly considered the coupling between optical measurements and electrochemistry for which the anti-reflective layer serves as working electrode. We investigated optically the dynamic of electrochemical reduction of Graphene Oxide (GO), the electrografting of organic layers by diazonium salts reduction on GO and its reduced form (rGO), as well as the intercalation of metallic ions within GO sheets. By combining versatility and high-contrast, BALM is established as a promising tool for the study of 2D materials, especially for the local and in situ characterization of their chemical and electrochemical reactivity.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02378233, version 1

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Kévin Jaouen. Backside absorbing layer microscopy : a new tool for the investigation of 2D materials. Chemical Physics [physics.chem-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS296⟩. ⟨tel-02378233⟩

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