Géographie de la végétation aux environs de Paris : le cas de la Ceinture verte d’Île-de-France. Fragmentation paysagère, enjeux socio-environnementaux, (dé)constructions territoriales

Abstract : In the surroundings of Paris, between the urban heart and the rural outer ring, between the city and the countryside, lies an hybrid area mainly composed of vegetation spaces – woodland, cropland, spontaneous vegetation – which are fragmented by the urban sprawl. In the early 1980’s, the Île-de-France regional Council sought to protect those in-between spaces by promoting a Green belt. In the case of Paris, due to a lack of law support, confusions in the boundaries and evolving functions, the implementation of this planning tool, developed to contain urban sprawl along the 20th century, failed. Meanwhile, the area of the Green belt has never stopped gaining environmental attention from city dwellers. There, they especially seek a quality of life and leasures in « natural » landscapes, they are concerned about biodiversity preservation, they wish to benefit from ecosytem services. This thesis shows the impact of socio-environmental expectations on vegetation spaces by shaping or dismantling territories, depending on the attractiveness of the vegetation or its neglect. Hence, by highlighting the anthropogenic characteristics of plants, our work shows the social dimension of vegetation, despite the environmental intentions. Geomatic methods, landscape analysis and biogeography methods (statistical analysis of botanical data) are conveyed in the spirit of a renewed environmental geography which mingles physical and human geography. In the Île-de-France Green belt, environmental issues serve urban planning objectives, i.e. contribute to the quality of life in the wealthier parts (Vallée de Chevreuse is used as an example here) and put into urban order the less integrated areas (Plaine de Pierrelaye illustrates this aspect). As a result, a domesticated, gardened, even urbanised type of nature is being created in the surroudings of Paris.
Keywords : Green belt
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Fabien Roussel. Géographie de la végétation aux environs de Paris : le cas de la Ceinture verte d’Île-de-France. Fragmentation paysagère, enjeux socio-environnementaux, (dé)constructions territoriales. Géographie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCD079⟩. ⟨tel-02377408⟩

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