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Dynamiques de la végétation et structuration des paysages : étude interdisciplinaire des paysages agropastoraux des campagnes médiévales du nord de la Haute- Bretagne (XIe-XVIe s.)

Abstract : Based on recent approaches in pollen analysis applied to rural history, this PhD dissertation has three objectives: (1) to question the chronology of agrarian expansion and regression in northern Upper Brittany between 11th and 16th century; (2) to ponder the originality of this area in relation to the surrounding areas; (3) to analyze the weight of economic and socialcontexts on the construction of landscapes. The changes in agro-pastoral landscapes reveal a rather classical chronology for the beginning of the period. The agricultural expansion affects the whole area in the 11th and 12th centuries. This expansion gradually leads to a stalling of growth in the 13th century. These changes affected practices. Thus we observe a shift from practices of temporary crops and extensively-managed grasslands towards a gradual intensification of agricultural activities. The originality concerns the late medieval agrarian crisis which is only detected close to the Norman border. The area of Rennes, on the other hand, is affected by an agricultural expansion which takes the form of an intensification of cereal farming, with the introduction of a new system of crop rotation integrating the cultivation of buckwheat. This change in agro-pastoral practices may be an answer to the stalling of growth. This change is mainly allowed by the economic dynamism that affects the duchy of Brittany in the 14th and 15th centuries. Growth doesn’t reach the Norman border until the second half of the 15th century. This time-lag can also be seen in the production of bastfibres of hemp which transformed the landscapes of rural Upper Brittany. Thus the palynological analysis questions the origin of the areas of production of canvases known in early modern times.
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Aurelie Reinbold. Dynamiques de la végétation et structuration des paysages : étude interdisciplinaire des paysages agropastoraux des campagnes médiévales du nord de la Haute- Bretagne (XIe-XVIe s.). Histoire. Université Rennes 2, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017REN20049⟩. ⟨tel-02377137v2⟩

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