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Stratégies thérapeutiques par conditionnement hypoxique : modalités pratiques et effets sur la santé cardio-respiratoire et métabolique

Abstract : Hypoxia refers to a decrease in the oxygen bioavailability at the tissue level. The combination of intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia is identified in several respiratory diseases as a critical pathophysiological element. However, research suggests that exposure to hypo- or normocapnic hypoxia can improve cardiovascular health. The combination of hypoxic exposure and exercise training has been used by athletes to improve aerobic exercise performance. Recent pilot studies in patients with chronic diseases indicate that exposure to moderate hypoxia at rest or during exercise is likely to induce significant gains in cardiovascular health, body composition and metabolic status.We investigated the effects of normobaric hypoxic exposure on cardiorespiratory and tissue function in healthy subjects, overweight or obese subjects at risk or with cardio-metabolic abnormalities. We assessed the efficacy of 2 types of passive hypoxic conditioning consisting in sustained hypoxia or intermittent hypoxia and hypoxic exercise training in comparison with normoxic condition. First, we assessed the effects of short-term hypoxic exposure at rest in 14 healthy subjects. Then, we evaluated the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of a 8-week normobaric hypoxic conditioning program at rest (intermittent or sustained hypoxia) in 35 overweight or obese patients, compared to placebo normoxic exposure. Next, we conducted a preliminary study in 24 healthy subjects to assess the acute responses to submaximal constant-load and high intensity interval cycling exercise performed in normoxia and in hypoxia. The last study aimed to compare the effect of an 8-week exercise training program performed either in normoxia or hypoxia on maximal aerobic capacity in overweight or obese subjects.In the healthy subject, we emphasized the rapid benefits of intermittent hypoxic conditioning on cardiovascular function (lower baseline systolic blood pressure and increased heart rate variability) and the modulation of tissue deoxygenation in response to hypoxia. We have also shown in healthy subjects that acute exercise (combined with hypoxia causes a similar decrease in muscle oxygenation but a greater prefrontal cortex deoxygenation compared to normoxic condition. Then, in the overweight or obese subject, we have shown that chronic passive hypoxic conditioning induces a decrease in diastolic blood pressure at rest in normoxia, an increase in the hypoxic ventilatory response and a decrease in heart rate variability after intermittent hypoxic conditioning only. In addition, chronic active (exercise training) hypoxic conditioning improves the maximal aerobic capacity compared to placebo normoxic training.Our results show the feasibility of several hypoxic conditioning strategies and their interesting effects on the vascular function in overweight/obese subjects presenting exercise limitations impeding exercise reconditioning. In addition, active hypoxic conditioning showed a greater effect on physical fitness than normoxic exercise training. These hypoxic conditioning strategies must be further optimized to improve their efficacy regarding weight loss and cardiometabolic morbidity in obese. They also represent promising therapeutic opportunities for other chronic diseases
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 21, 2019 - 3:28:31 PM
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Samarmar Chacaroun. Stratégies thérapeutiques par conditionnement hypoxique : modalités pratiques et effets sur la santé cardio-respiratoire et métabolique. Pneumologie et système respiratoire. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAS020⟩. ⟨tel-02374556⟩

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