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3D ultrafast echocardiography : toward a quantitative imaging of the myocardium.

Abstract : The objectives of this PhD thesis were to develop 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging of the human heart toward the characterization of cardiac tissues. In order to do so, a customized, programmable, ultrafast scanner built in our group was used. In the first part of this thesis, a real-time imaging sequence was developed to facilitate in-vivo imaging using this scanner, as well as dedicated 3D and 4D visualization tools. Then, we developed 3D Backscatter Tensor Imaging (BTI), a technique to visualize the muscular fibres orientation within the heart wall non-invasively during the cardiac cycle. Applications on a healthy volunteer before and after cardiac contraction was shown. Moreover, the undesired effects of axial motion on BTI were studied, and a methodology to estimate motion velocity and reduce the undesired affects was introduced and applied on a healthy volunteer. This technique may become an interesting tool for the diagnosis and quantification of fibres disarrays in hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. Moreover, 3D ultrafast ultrasound was used to image the propagation of naturally generated shear waves in the heart walls, and an algorithm to determine their speed was developed. The technique was validated in silico and the in vivo feasibility was shown on two healthy volunteers, during cardiac contraction and relaxation. As the velocity of shear waves is directly related to the rigidity of the heart, this technique could be a way to assess the ability of the ventricle to contract and relax, which is an important parameter for cardiac function evaluation. Finally, the transient myocardial contraction was imaged in 3D on isolated rat hearts at high framerate in order to analyse the contraction sequence. Mechanical activation delays were successfully quantified during natural rhythm, pacing and hypothermia. Then, the feasibility of the technique in 2D on human hearts non-invasively was investigated. Applications on foetuses and adults hearts were shown. This imaging technique may help the characterization of cardiac arrhythmias and thus improve their treatment. In conclusion, we have introduced in this work three novel 3D ultrafast imaging modalities for the quantification of structural and functional myocardial properties. 3D ultrafast imaging may become an important non-ionizing, transportable diagnostic tool that may improve the patient care at the bed side.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 21, 2019 - 11:39:30 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02373882, version 1

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Victor Finel. 3D ultrafast echocardiography : toward a quantitative imaging of the myocardium.. Physics [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCC134⟩. ⟨tel-02373882⟩

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