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Rôle de la désensibilisation de CXCR4 dans l'homéostasie médullaire chez la souris

Abstract : The CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis plays an essential role in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) homeostasis and constitutes a key pathway through which the niches and HSPCs communicate in the bone marrow (BM). Heterozygous gain-of-function mutations of CXCR4, which engender a truncated receptor and affect its homologous desensitization in response to CXCL12, have been reported in the WHIM Syndrome (WS); a rare immunodeficiency notably characterized by lymphopenia. The mechanisms underpinning this remain obscure. Using a mouse model harboring a naturally occurring WS-linked Cxcr4 gain-of-function mutation, we explored the possibility that the lymphopenia in WS arise from defects at the HSPC level in the BM. We showed that Cxcr4 desensitization is required for proper quiescence/cycling balance of short-term HSCs as well as their differentiation into multipotent progenitors and downstream lymphoid-biased progenitors. Thus, our results suggest that efficient Cxcr4 desensitization is critical for lymphoid differentiation of HSPCs, and its impairment is a key mechanism underpinning the lymphopenia observed in WS mice. The role of Cxcr4 desensitization in regulating such lympho-hematopoiesis process implicated both intrinsic and extrinsic properties, thus raising the question of the impact of a gain-of-Cxcr4-function mutation on BM stroma. Therefore, the main part of my PhD project was dedicated to evaluate using this relevant knock-in model the impact of Cxcr4 desensitization on maintenance of BM mesenchymal elements. We have found unexpectedly that such regulatory mechanism is intrinsically required for regulating quiescence/cycling balance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and preserving their osteogenic potential through the control of Cxcl12 expression and availability in an autocrine manner. Therefore, these findings support autocrine and paracrine actions of the Cxcl12/Cxcr4 signaling axis within MSCs to regulate osteoblast differentiation while contributing to HSPC niches and hematopoiesis.
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Julie Nguyen. Rôle de la désensibilisation de CXCR4 dans l'homéostasie médullaire chez la souris. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS485⟩. ⟨tel-02373420⟩

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