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Analytical and experimental studies of instability of an axial compression

Abstract : This thesis presents an analytical and experimental study of an axial compression system consisting of a compressor, plenum and throttle. The analysis is based on the Moore-Greitzer model, the results being later employed to interpret the experimental ones. Linear and weakly nonlinear analyses are presented, as are some results obtained by numerical integration of the fully nonlinear model equations. A simple theoretical model of the experimentally observed acoustic modes is also presented. In the experiments, pressure measurements were carried out for different rotation rates and throttle settings. This allowed the determination of the pressure rise across the compressor and the flow rate using a Venturi, yielding the compressor characteristic function. Pressure fluctuations were measured using four microphones placed upstream of the compressor. We did not observe surge, but rotating stall occurred when the system was sufficiently throttled. Prior to stall, fluctuations corresponding to acoustic duct modes were found. At stall onset, a rotating stall cell of growing amplitude was observed. However, the cell rapidly broke down and gave way to random fluctuations. Thus, for the given compression system, developed stall is perhaps better described as random, rather than rotating. Signal processing (frequency spectra, as well as auto- and cross-correlations) was used to analyse the pressure fluctuations of the acoustic modes and developed stall. The acoustic modes give spectral peaks located close to the expected theoretical values. In the presence of stall, the spectrum is broadband, having a low frequency (∼20 Hz) peak followed by a tail which extends up to ∼1 kHz, well above the rotation frequency (∼150 Hz) of the rotor. There appears to be a frequency range between the low-frequency peak and the high-frequency fall-off in which the spectrum approximates a power law. The autocorrelations and cross-correlations between different microphones show ∼20 Hz oscillations. Low pass filtering the data, the cross-correlation functions of the filtered signals of different microphones suggest a rotating cell which takes ∼0.05 s for a complete rotation. This could explain the ∼20 Hz spectral peak and oscillations of the correlation functions. Thus, the pressure fluctuations appear to consist of a strong high-frequency, random component and a rotating cell. Decorrelation of the filtered signal as separation time increases indicates that, rather than maintaining form and rotational velocity like a classical stall cell, the cell itself exhibits randomness.
Keywords : Axial compression
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 20, 2019 - 7:13:28 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02373142, version 1


Lu Zhang. Analytical and experimental studies of instability of an axial compression. Other. Université de Lyon, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEC046⟩. ⟨tel-02373142⟩



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