Métropoles diversifiées et entrepreneuriat innovant : le cas des États-Unis

Abstract : Jacobs economies represent the widespread idea that economic diversity fosters economic development incities. In the scholarship of Jacobs economies, the mediator between diversity and development is almost invariably innovation, stimulated by the diversity of knowledge. Moreover, the conventional measurements of such innovation skew towards big, established business, as well as materialised technology and invention.However, the critical role of entrepreneurship in development has been appearing more and more clearly. Furthermore, the economy is increasingly powered by knowledge and services rather than materialised technology, which enables smaller and more entrepreneurial business. In view of the economic importance of entrepreneurship, its contribution to urban economies appears significantly under-researched. In contrast,according to Jane Jacobs, the primary engine of economic development is innovative entrepreneurship,enabled by the diversity of activities, not just knowledge. Our research question then is whether economicdiversity fosters innovative entrepreneurship in cities.We define innovative entrepreneurship in the light of entrepreneurial management research and in the context of the knowledge and service economy. We reframe Jacobs economies around innovative entrepreneurship, enabled by the structure of local activities, rather than their size. We measure innovative entrepreneurship as the births of new headquarters in the CrunchBase database of new ventures and venture capital, a metric which corrects the biases of conventional measurements. We find robust statistical correlation between most-granular industrial diversity and innovative entrepreneurship across allmetropolitan areas of the United States between 1999 and 2016, controlling for employment size. This result supports the existence of Jacobs economies, from a perspective which adheres more closely toJacobs’s 1969 thesis but is still very new to its scholarship. This perspective also contributes to giving entrepreneurship back its critical place in urban development.
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Sylvain Remy. Métropoles diversifiées et entrepreneuriat innovant : le cas des États-Unis. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PA01H109⟩. ⟨tel-02373087⟩

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