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La remise en cause des services urbains en réseau : une approche par la technique : le cas du compostage des déchets en pied d'immeuble à Paris

Abstract : This thesis studies collective composting devices in Île-de-France (Paris region). As the traditional network infrastructure of waste disposal has coped with the reduction of waste flows with difficulty, local governments in charge of waste management have developed alternative collective composting systems since the beginning of the 2000s. Composting bins allowing users to recycle bio-waste locally were seen as a solution to current problems in urban services transformation. As a starting point, this work observes that service users involved in local composting are particularly motivated, and that the technical process they are involved in seems more complex than selective sorting. Thus, the thesis argues that collective composting cannot any longer be considered as a waste management device, but as a technology, in the anthropological meaning of the term. In that way, composting appears as a socialized action in which inhabitants take biological matters in charge, transforming them into compost for a variety of reasons and objectives analyzed in this thesis. First, this work shows how the French State and local governments developed collective composting more like a communication tool than a real technological device, as if institutions involved in waste management were trapped in a traditional urban technical network while still trying to transform it. As a result, alternative waste devices were disqualified from the field of serious technological solutions. The second part of this thesis offers a technological study of collective home composting in order to understand how it precisely works. This thesis uses the anthropological concept of “chaînes opératoires” which allows to examine every stage of the composting process, by studying how biological matters (in this case, bio-waste) are transformed, with which kind of tool (shovel, composting bins, garden).
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Elisabeth Lehec. La remise en cause des services urbains en réseau : une approche par la technique : le cas du compostage des déchets en pied d'immeuble à Paris. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PA01H081⟩. ⟨tel-02372174⟩

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