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La question sociale en santé : L'hôpital public et l'accès aux soins des personnes en marge du système de santé en France à l'aube du XXe siècle

Abstract : This thesis explores how the “social question” (question sociale) is managed as an issue of health at publichospitals through the lens of power relations and health care structures. To this end, the sociological studyexamines the “healthcare access unit” (Permanence d’accès aux soins de santé, PASS) of public hospitals in France,which are reserved for persons who are excluded from the healthcare system – most notably irregular migrants.The employed methods combine a socio-historical analysis with ethnographic fieldwork — including participantobservation and semi-structured interviews (n=40) — conducted over the course of three years in sixteen PASSunits based at eight different hospitals, and in the broader structures within which they exist (i.e. associationsand institutional guardianships).In the first section, a genealogy of the “social question” in health in France demonstrates how space for thehealthcare of poverty has emerged at the end of the 20th century, which specifically targets social groups amongthe most destitute. This space of a particular type of care was increasingly institutionalized in the public hospitalsystem during the 1990’s, embedding itself in both the field of public health and in the fight against socialexclusion. This space fulfills several (bio)political objectives: fighting social exclusion, ensuring a right to health,and protecting the health of the population as a whole. Second, an analysis of PASS units in the organisation ofpublic hospitals exposes how they are weakened through two dominant and competing models (technicalspecialization and new public management). Faced with this situation, varied strategies (ex. of adaptation andempowerment) are employed by different actors inside and outside of the hospital. Lastly, a third section lays outthe categories of patients that are produced during interactions with professionals from PASS units. It exposesthe role of these categories in the stratification of the health care system along its lowest margins. Patients aredivided into more or less legitimate groups - based on criteria of citizenship and of solvency – each of which areafforded differentiated values of life. These dynamics are characterized by a permanent tension betweeninclusion and exclusion in the field, and by a differentiated distribution of health care. In such a context, anindividualized and flexible government allows for the pursuit of these multiple (bio)political objectives.
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Jérémy Geeraert. La question sociale en santé : L'hôpital public et l'accès aux soins des personnes en marge du système de santé en France à l'aube du XXe siècle. Sociologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCD080⟩. ⟨tel-02372103⟩

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