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Caractérisation thermique et mécanique de fibres naturelles d'origine marine en vue de leur utilisation dans les matériaux de l'habitat

Abstract : In this work, we have firstly studied the use of fibers extracted from the marine plant Posidonia-Oceanica as loose-fill thermal insulation material for buildings. Measurements were conducted and allowed the determination of the effect of fibers density and chemical treatments on thermal properties. Thermal conductivities were lying between 0.04 and 0.07 W.m-1.K-1, whereas the heat capacity is about 2500 J.kg-1.K-1. Thus, it was found that fibers thermal conductivity is close to the one of commonly used thermal insulation materials and that their heat capacity is significantly higher. It was also found that the influence of chemical treatment on the thermal properties is not significant. Measurement results showed that these fibers could be a promising ecological loose-fill insulation material in the construction field. Secondly, fibers were used as reinforcement for cement paste. A set of composite samples were formulated by varying fibers volume fractions from 0 to 20%. Their hygroscopic, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. Composites were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and their thermophysical properties were measured with a Hot Disk thermal constants analyzer during the drying cycle. Sensitivity of these materials to relative humidity was examined by measuring the water content variation in controlled humidity environments. These measurements allowed the quantification of the water diffusion coefficient. This coefficient increased slightly with the increase of fibers content in composite samples. Concerning thermal properties, the addition of Posidonia-Oceanica fibers improved the material insulating properties. In fact, a decrease of about 22% on thermal conductivity values was found with the introduction of 20% of fibers compared to the unfilled cement paste. For Posidonia-Oceanica fibers volume fractions considered in this study (0 to 20 Vol.%), the effect of the presence of fibers on thermal diffusivity and on heat capacity is not significant, regarding the measurement uncertainties. Concerning mechanical properties, flexural and compressive strengths increased for about fiber volume fractions in the range of 5 to 10%. Moreover, a noticeable increase of toughness was observed with increasing fibers amount: for instance, an increase of about 65% was observed with the introduction of 20% of fibers in the composite. Based on the experimental observations, simplified analytical models were developed to predict thermal conductivity, flexural strength, compressive strength and toughness as a function of fibers volume fraction in the material
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Ons Hamdaoui. Caractérisation thermique et mécanique de fibres naturelles d'origine marine en vue de leur utilisation dans les matériaux de l'habitat. Génie civil. Université Paris-Est; École nationale d'ingénieurs de Tunis (Tunisie), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1152⟩. ⟨tel-02371945⟩

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