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Potentiel de la Biodiversité dans la construction de Technosols à partir de déchets urbains

Abstract : Topsoil requirements for the development of urban green spaces induce a harvest of agricultural or natural soils. On the other hand, huge volumes of deep horizons excavated during the construction of buildings are dumped on the outskirts of cities, with an impact on the environment. The recycling of these inert wastes for the construction of soils for green spaces appears as a promising solution. However, it is necessary to ensure that these constructed Technosols are suitable for plant and animal diversity, and can deliver ecosystem services, as proposed by this thesis. The composition of the material mixes (deep horizons, urban green waste compost, crushed concrete) was manipulated in a 4000 m² experiment in collaboration with the company ECT and CD 93. A four-year monitoring showed that the compost used was responsible for the death of some trees, but associated with concrete, it greatly increased their growth rate and macrofaunal colonization. In the meadow land use, the addition of compost increased biomass production and altered the assemblage of the plant community, favoring competitive species, but no effect on macrofauna assemblage was observed. In a mesocosm experiment aiming at studying the link between plant diversity and productivity, complementarity between species was observed for one of the three communities, at an intermediate level of fertility. It is therefore possible to improve the primary productivity of new ecosystems by manipulating the composition of the mixtures of materials while avoiding the dominance of certain species, in order to preserve diversified communities
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Charlotte Pruvost. Potentiel de la Biodiversité dans la construction de Technosols à partir de déchets urbains. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1161⟩. ⟨tel-02371928⟩

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