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Réponse de la flore, de la faune du sol et de leur substrat à l'introduction d'espèces exotiques envahissantes végétales.

Abstract : Invasive alien plants are species introduced and naturalized outside of their native distribution range and which have the capacity to maintain and expand their population. Some of these species are considered to be ecosystem transformers by altering their structure, functioning as well as resident animal and plant communities. These induced alterations make some of these species undesirable through their ecological and economical impacts. The work presented in this thesis aimed at a better understanding of the impact of biological invasions by alien plants. The soil fauna, native vegetation and their substrate, as well as ecosystem functioning, were studied at different spatial scales. Two exotic alien species, invasive in Europe, were considered as biological models for this work: the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and the Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica). Firstly, a global meta-analysis demonstrated the positive impact that plant invasions can exert on the abundance of some groups within the soil fauna, notably primary consumers, within different types of habitats (open or closed). Then, a large-scale study on the black locust revealed the differences that can can occur in the response of forest ecosystems to invasions along a latitudinal gradient. Study sites along this gradient, distributed amog four distinct regions in western Europe, exhibit differences in climate and dominant native vegetation which can alter the impact of the black locust. A detailed study on black locust impact in Normandy demonstrated the impact of R. pseudoacacia on native plant and soil fauna communities, as well as some ecosystem functions, in comparison to two native tree species. Finally, a laboraty experiment demonstrated the impact that allelopathic compounds extracted from Japanese knotweed rhizomes can have on some organisms within the soil fauna. This study showed that some invasive alient plants can influence the soil fauna, and soil food webs, through their secondary metabolism. This thesis illustrates that simultaneous study of both aboveground and belowground ecosystem compartments at different spatial scales is of interest in the context of biological invasions.
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Corentin Abgrall. Réponse de la flore, de la faune du sol et de leur substrat à l'introduction d'espèces exotiques envahissantes végétales.. Ecologie, Environnement. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMR056⟩. ⟨tel-02370956⟩

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